Megatrends 2000
John Naisbitt & Patricia Aburdene
1990 by Megatrends, Ltd.
ISBN:  0-688-07224-0

1.   The Global Economic Boom of the 1990's
2.   Renaissance in the Arts
3.   The Emergence of Free-Market Socialism
4.  Global Lifestyles and Cultural Nationalism
5.  The privatization of the Welfare State
6.  The Rise of the Pacific Rim
7.  The 1990's: Decade of Women in Leadership
8.  The Age of Biology
9.  Religious Revival of the Third Millennium
10.  Triumph of the Individual

Chapter 1: The Global Economic Boom of the 1990's

1. In the decade of the 1990's the world is entering a period of economic prosperity.

2. The economic forces of the world are surging across national borders, resulting in more democracy, more freedom, more trade, more opportunity and greater prosperity.

3. The world is moving from trade among countries to a single economy. One economy. One marketplace.

4. In global economy, presidents, prime ministers and parliaments are less and less important.

5. For a global economy--one marketplace--to work, we must eventually have completely free trade among nations, just as we do within the nation-states themselves.

6. The extraordinary decade of the 1990's, all these forces

    Economic considerations transcending political considerations
    The movement to worldwide free trade
    The powerful drive of telecommunications
    The relative abundance of natural resources
    Competition for reduced taxes
    The downsizing of economic output
    Inflation and interest containment
    The Asian Consumer Boom
    The advancement of democracy and the spread of free enterprise
    The Obsolescence of War
    Our new attentiveness to the environment

7. If all the numbers are tallied, the United States has no deficit with Japan or the rest of the world.

8. Of the total direct foreign investment in the United States (250 billion at the end of 1987), the British held the biggest share with 28 percent, followed by the Dutch with 21 percent, and the Japanese wit only 12 percent. Europeans have five times the stake in U.S. plants and equipment that the Japanese have.

9. Foreigners will continue to invest in America. "It is a mystery to me, says Milton Friedman, "why it is regarded as a sign of Japanese strength and U.S. weakness that the Japanese find it more attractive to invest in the U.S. than in Japan. Surely it is precisely the reverse-- a sign of U.S. strength and Japanese weakness.

10. It is not by chance that the United States has 188 Nobel prize winners and Japan has 5.

11. It is the habit of Americans to brag about previous immigrants and to complain about the current ones. America's great import is people.

12. During the 1990's well educated, skilled information workers will earn the highest wages in history, further reinforcing the decade's affluence.

13. You must possess the required skill to do those jobs. Tragically, the unskilled, the undereducated will command salaries that match their economic value in an information--not very high.

14. The working woman is lifting millions of families out of the middle class concludes a Wall Street Journal article.

15. The unemployment rate for college graduates (one in four U.S. workers) is 1.7 percent: for people with one to three years of college, it is 3.7 percent. High school graduates have unemployment rates of 5.4 percent, and among high school dropouts unemployment is 9.4 percent--nearly six times that of college grads. Today half of all adults get at least some college, compared with one fourth in the 1950's.

16. The 120 million people in the U.S. work force today must constantly upgrade their skills over the course of the 1990's. It will require a tremendous human resource effort to transform corporate America into the decentralized, customer-oriented model of the information society.

17. Corporations need people who can think critically, plan strategically and adapt to change.

18. The end of 1992 is the target date for the Europe without frontiers, for the twelve-country members of the European Community.
 
 

Chapter 2: Renaissance in the Arts

1. The affluent information society has laid the economic groundwork for the renaissance, creating new patrons. More important, it has spawned an educated, professional, and increasingly female work force. For people committed to personal fitness programs, spectator sports hold less allure; they prefer to spend Sunday afternoon at the museum rather than watching football on T.V.

2. In the US, business will fund that historic shirt. Already the leading US arts patron, corporations, will begin to abandon sports and increasingly turn to the arts to define their image to market products.

3. It is difficult to talk about the arts without beginning in New York or in London, cities synonymous with the theater. Try this statistic on your favorite sports fan: New York's Broadway Theater at Broadway and Fifty-third Street sells more tickets than the Yankees and Mets combined.

4. The arts are growing so popular that sometime soon, on a crisp Sunday afternoon in autumn, a rugged American husband will call over a few of his buddies, sit down in front of the TV, open a six-pack of beer, and watch Mozart's acclaimed opera the Marriage of Figaro.

    Boston: Good schools are small and have bad athletic programs

5. In 1988, 55,483 new book titles and editions were published in the United states compared to about 41,000 in 1977, according to Publisher's Weekly. In 1988 US publishers sold 15 billion worth of books compared to 13 billion in 1987. Due to the information explosion. Nevertheless, one in five American adults buys at least 1 book a week. People eighteen to thirty four years old buy 2.6 books a week. And they read them.

6. A vibrant arts community is critical when corporations decide where to locate, when people decide where to work. To attract them, communities must pay more attention to symphonies, opera, art, and ballet says David L. Birch, an expert on business development and director of MIT's Program on Neighborhood and Regional Changes. American's sense how vital the arts are; 92% of them say the arts are important to the quality of life in their communities.

7. The renaissance in the arts is structuring the education curriculum. MIT announced it will require undergraduate students to take on a more "systematic study of the arts, humanities and social sciences."

8. The US government allocated 167.7 million to the arts in 1988. In 1988, the US government spent per person, $1,143 on defense, $74 on education, and 70 cents on the arts.

9. sometime in the millennial 1990's, the arts will replace sports as society's dominant leisure activity. In less than a generation, Americans have reversed their leisure spending habits. Now for the third consecutive year the arts have overtaken sports. The dramatic change parallels the shift from an industrial to an information society and has been accelerated by the coming of age of the baby boomers, a well-educated and consequently arts-loving generation.

10. People who still watch TV tend to be older, to have lower incomes and less education than cable audiences, which tend to be younger and more upscale.
 
 

Chapter 3: The Emergence of Free-Market Socialism

1. When we look back from the year 2010 or 2020, it will be plain for all to see that socialism, facing almost certain death, was radically transformed on the doorstep of the 21st century.

2. The six main reasons for the demise of classical socialism:

a. The global economy. In a global economy, no individual country--capitalist or Communist--can sustain a closed self-sufficient economy.

b. Technology. Telecommunications made the global economy possible in the first place; now that same technology is accelerating its development.

c. The failure of centralization. The lack of any successful centrally planned economies has finally been acknowledged. It is clear to just about everyone that the decentralized, entrepreneurial, market-driven model is everywhere more successful.

d. The high cost of welfare state-socialist schemes. The cost of central government-supplied human services has caught up with almost all countries and overwhelmed many.

e. The shift in the workforce. Worldwide decline in the number and importance of the blue-collar working class, the basis for unions and socialist parties.

f. The new importance of the individual. The very nature of any information economy shifts the focus away from the state to the individual.

3. We are now in a transitional period, when virtually all centrally planned economies are experimenting with a wide range of market mechanisms: privatizing the means of production and distribution; creating stock markets; decentralizing; allowing bankruptcy; letting markets set prices; deregulating.

4. The world is undergoing a profound shift from economies run by governments to economies run by markets.

5. Eastern Europe is heading in three directions: political pluralism, free-market economics, and in the longer term, integration wit Western Europe.
 
 

Chapter 4: Global Lifestyles and Cultural Nationalism

1. In the urban centers of the developing world signs of the international youth culture are almost everywhere. So enthusiastically are we swapping food, music, and fashion that a new universal international lifestyle reigns in Osaka, Madrid and Seattle.

2. The world is becoming more and more cosmopolitan and we are all influencing each other.

3. Among the world's forty best-known brands are Coke, IBM, Sony, Porche, McDonald's, Honda and Nestle, according to a survey of 3,000 consumers in nine countries. "Worlds first true world brand" say John Diefenbach, CEO of Landor Associates which conducted the survey. Seventeen of the forty were U.S. companies; fourteen European; and nine Japanese.

4. But even as our lifestyles grow more similar, there are unmistakable signs of a powerful countertrend: a backlash against uniformity, a desire to assert the uniqueness of one's culture and language, a repudiation of foreign influence.

5. Air travels open the avenues of exchange. Full page ads in the New York Times tries to woo people to shop in London.

6. Every day 3 million people fly from one place on the planet to another.

7. There is an explosion in the buying and selling of financial instruments (stocks, bonds, currencies), an explosion in the buying and selling of what we wear, eat, listen to and watch-- what makes up our lifestyles. In a "fax-it-to-me" world, it is as easy to do business with a supplier in Taipei as in Chicago.

8. West Los Angeles is the home of Gurume, a Japanese run restaurant whose specialty is Gurume chicken-is Oriental chopped chicken and green beans in an Italian marinara sauce, served over spaghetti, with Japanese cabbage salad, Texas toast and Louisiana Tabasco sauce.

9. In the US, ethnic food is one of the hottest segments in the restaurant business.

10. Oversaturated in the US markets, McDonald's is pursuing an aggressive global strategy.

11. American businessmen are switching to Italian suits, Italian youths dress entirely in blue denim, and fashionable Chinese young people wouldn't be caught dead in a Mao jacket.

12. Global merchandising has let to global pricing--through electronics.

13. Seventy-five percent of all imported television programs come from the United states.

14. The most important factor accelerating the development of a single global lifestyle is the proliferation of the English language. Language is a great agent of homogenization; it is the frequency on which culture is transmitted.

15. The world's most taught language, English is not replacing other languages; it is supplementing them. But just as English becomes the universal language, there is a backlash against that same universality. People are insisting on keeping traditional languages and cultures alive.

16. The language of the information age is English. Computers talk to each other in English.

17. English is the language of international business.
 
 

Chapter 5: The Privatization of the Welfare State

1. In 1979, less than 7 percent held any shares in British Industry, while less than 50 percent owned their homes. Now more than 20 percent owns shares, more than 66 percent own their homes.

2. Between 1980 and 1988 more than 40 percent of Britain's state sector was transformed to private enterprise.

3. Potential areas for later privatization include forestry prisons, steels and coal industries and the post office.

4. The democracies of Western Europe seem intent on becoming nations of shareholders as well.

5. The privatization trend is sweeping Canada.

6. Nationalization is no longer fashionable; the new buzzword in Africa is "privatization".

7. The United states has privatized a few railroads but has not been a big player in the privatization game because it did not nationalize very many companies in the first place.

8. At the national level there is increasing talk of the United States privatizing the Postal Service and the Social Security system , or at least opening the doors to private-sector alternatives.

9. Perhaps the best example of the push for privatization in the United States is the nationwide movement toward getting people off welfare and into private-sector jobs. To date, some thirty-nine states have enacted Workfare programs. Congress has mandated that all states must have jobs programs by the end of 1990.
 
 

Chapter 6: The Rise of the Pacific Rim

1. Five hundred years ago the world's trade center began moving from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Today, it is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The cities of the Pacific Rim--Los Angeles, Sydney and Tokyo--are taking over from the old, established cities of the Atlantic--New York, Paris, and London.

2. The pacific rim shift is economically driven--and at a pace that is without precedent.

3. The shift is not only economic but cultural as well. The countries of the Pacific Rim speak more than 1,000 languages and have the most varied religious and cultural traditions in the world.

4. Although Japan is the region's economic leader today, the East Asia region (China and the Four Tigers--South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore) will eventually dominate.

5. The Pacific Rim's economic thrust is being reinforced with a commitment to education. As early as 1985, a higher percentage of young Koreans attended schools of higher education than young Britons.

6. In a global economy the rise of the Pacific rim need not signify the decline of the West unless the West ignores the significance of this trend and fails to capitalize on it.

7. The 1990's will show Tokyo playing the leadership role in fashion, design and the arts.

8. South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong have revolutionized the theory of economic development by showing the world how to skip over much of the industrialization phase and plunge right into the information economy.

9. In the new economic order, the countries that invest most in education will be the most competitive.

10. Japanese students attend school 240 days a year (versus 180 in the United States), 5 1/2 days a week. Nearly 50 percent of middle-school children supplement their studies with juku--entrance-examination tutorial schools. Most experts agree Japan's economic success is linked to the rigor and efficiency of its primary and secondary schools.

11. America's West coast states constitute a major part of the regions are well positioned to capitalize on the Century of the Pacific, and will play a pivotal role in its development.

12. Seattle has a thirty-six hour advantage in shipping time over Los Angeles.

13. Already the Japanese Skier is developing a prejudice in favor of the Canadian Rockies

14. This chapter's main point is that US business should shift its focus from Europe to the Pacific. But the message is equally important for Europe. European business has to recognize that its domestic market is shrinking. Europe can never lose sight of the fact that Asia will have 80 million new consumers by the year 2000. The growing income millions of them already possess and the East's fortunate association of European goods with quality are factors Europeans must bear in mind throughout the 1990's.
 
 

Chapter 7: The 1990's: Decade of Women in Leadership

1. Corporations as we have known them were created by men for men. After world war II America's veterans exchanged their military uniforms for factory overalls and gray flannel suits. But the bureaucratic, authoritarian military model from the 19th century remained the organizational system by which they governed themselves. Yet since World War II the number of working women has increased 200 percent.

2. For the last two decades US women have taken two thirds of the millions of new jobs created in the information era and will continue to do so well into the millennium.

3. Women are starting new business twice as fast as men. In Canada, one third of small businesses are owned by women.

4. The dominant principle of organization has shifted, from management in order to control an enterprise to leadership in order to bring out the best in people and to respond quickly to change.

5. Leadership is the process of moving people in some direction mostly through "noncoercive means" say John P. Kotter of the Harvard Business School, author of the Leadership Factor.

6. Outside the military management model, men and women are equally capable of inspiring commitment and bringing out the best in people.

7. In sheer numbers women dominate the information society. Eighty-four percent of working women are part of the information/service sector. Of the people whose job title falls under the category of "professional"--versus clerical, technical, laborer--the majority are women. Forty-four percent of adult working women (ages 25-64) are college-educated, compared with 20 percent in 1965.

8. Today's well-educated work force. One quarter of the work force aged twenty-five to sixty-four consists of college graduates or better, twice the percentage twenty years ago. Another 20 percent has one to three years of college, more than double the old ratio. That means nearly half--45 percent--the work force is college educated. In addition, 40 percent are high school graduates. That leaves just 15 percent who are adult-aged high school dropouts. Twenty years ago it was 41 percent.

9. The loyalty factor: A recent survey confirmed what executives have complained about for years. Seventy percent of managers report employees--especially young executives--do not exhibit the same loyalty to their companies that was the norm in the 1950's, concludes a study by Egon Zehnder International, a Zurich-based consulting firm with offices in New York City.

10. How can we encourage greater loyalty? That was the question asked in a survey of 100 senior-level executives of the largest public companies in America, and 74 percent answered: better leadership.

11. Michael Maccoby, author of the Gamesman and the Leader postulates a new corporate archetype that tracks well with the Success executive profile. A "self developer," he says, is an individual who values independence, dislikes bureaucracies, and seeks to balance work with other priorities like family and recreation.

12. An effective leader creates a vision that tells people where a company is going and how it will get there and becomes the organizing force behind every corporate decision: Will this action help us achieve our vision?

13. Why women will lead: women have reached a critical mass in virtually all the white-collar professions, especially in business.

14. Women have achieved, if not a majority, a substantial proportion of the previously male-dominated careers in the information and services industries, the jobs from which business and social leadership emerges.

15. In decades past, the few women appointed corporate officers were relegated to positions as assistant treasurers or corporate secretaries. Today 83 percent of the female officers in Fortune 500 and Service 500 companies responding to a survey by the executive search firm Heidrick & Struggles, held the title of vice-president or better with 35 percent in 1980.

16. As anyone in the old-boy network. The road to leadership begins with education. In 1975 women received 11.7 percent of the MBA degrees granted; today they receive 33 percent. Women now earn thirteen times more engineering degrees than in 1975, and women represent about 20 percent of all physicians and layers, an impressive proportion, though not as high as other professions cited previously. That is because men so dominated these professions that women have had to build from a base close to zero.

17. Women may have missed out on the industrial age, but they have already established themselves in the industries of the future.

18. Women are already leading their own businesses, which they are now starting at twice the rate of men.

19. Although women will reach the top in the 1990's, they certainly were barred from the boardroom during the 1970's and 1980's. No wonder so many talented, successful women said, "The heck with this," and started their own businesses.

20. The New leadership: Winning commitment. The simplest, most straightforward way to earn loyalty is through honest, ethical management. A 1988 Lou Harris poll sponsored by Steelcase Inc. asked office workers what they most valued at work. Most important was: "management that is honest, upright and ethical" in its dealing with employees and the community. It was considered "very important by 81 percent of those polled, but only 41 percent said it was "very true" of their employer.

21. The primary challenge of leadership in the 1990's is to encourage the new, better-educated worker to be more entrepreneurial, self-managing and oriented toward lifelong learning.

22. In the 1990's day care will become a common employee benefit. This is not just a way to keep and attract good people, there are substantial cost saving as well. (absenteeism, turnover rate).
 
 

Chapter 8: The Age of Biology

1. We are shifting from the models and metaphors of physics to the models and metaphors of biology to help us understand today's dilemmas and opportunities. Today, we are in the process of creating a society that is an elaborate array of information feedback systems, the very structure of the biological organism. Biology as metaphor suggests: information-intensive, micro, inner-directed, adaptive, holistic.

2. Biology, rather than electronics may hold the key to a new generation of "thinking computers."

3. Most of us are somewhat put off by technology, and the confusing ethical component of biotechnology reinforces the temptation to avoid the subject entirely. That would be a mistake. The issues of biotechnology will not go away. And it is too important to delegate to the experts.

4. The first thrust of biotechnology occurred in health care when scientists altered mice and goats to produce proteins and chemicals useful for humans--a drug to aid hemophiliacs and TPA to dissolve blood clots.

5. Periodic attempts to field-test genetically engineered organisms have brought a hailstorm of criticism.

6. The most common questions raised about biotechnology are:

a. How can we be sure that a genetically altered organism--even potentially beneficial to humans--won't have a disastrous consequence when released in the environment?

b. What should be the trade-offs between ensuring public safety and continuing scientific progress?

7. No critic anywhere has spoken louder than Jeremy Rifkin, a Washington attorney and biotechnological gadfly. Rifkin opposes any manipulation of human genes on the ground that it will lead to a policy of creating "perfect people," raising the emotional issue of eugenics.

8. The rapidity of scientific advances has certainly outpaced public assimilation--or interest. But it is too important--and moving fast. If you are not informed on this topic, you are letting other forces play God.

Five main assumptions

a. Although biotechnology is technical and sometimes frightening, we can't keep ignoring it.

b. It is later than you think. Even at this point it would be difficult to put the genie (gene?) back in the bottle. It's out.

c. The responsibility for what is happening has already been thrust upon us.

d. technology is not inherently evil. It is neutral. How we use it is key. There is a lot more positive than negative that will be coming out of biotechnology, but we need to know what we are getting into.

e. We must evolve spiritually if we are to handle the responsibility of manipulating life itself. Perhaps we do need safeguards and time slowdowns to handle this responsibility.

9. Farmers will then become technicians whose main job is to decide which characteristics they want their crops to exhibit.

10. Farmers will be shifting their spending priorities from fertilizers and pesticides to genetically altered seeds that do the same job.

11. Biotechnology researchers realized early that if the genetic instructions for the manufacture of a desirable protein are inserted into a living cell's DNA, that cell not only manufactures the protein, but also passes it on to future generations.

12. Gene engineering may be the epitome of high technology, but it won't always be that way. With each new discovery it becomes easier to manipulate genes.

13. animals will produce valuable biological; products from humans, almost like factories--which some people think very wrong, but they will thereby same many human lives.

14. In the Rocky Mountains, people are now skiing on genetically produced powder snow. Snowmax is a tapioca like natural protein that can be genetically produced in very large amounts. When water touches the protein, it produces huge quantities of a dry, powdery snow. It is a big improvement over traditional artificial snow. with ordinary fake snow production, a lot of water used is wasted. Not with Snowmax. about $650 worth of Snowmax used in 1 million gallons of water covers an acre with five feet of snow.

15. State governments are playing an increasingly important role in financing biotechnology research. notwithstanding concerns about safety and ethics, biotechnology has generally won support of state lawmakers, who wish to attract new companies, encourage employment, and know that biotechnology also yields inventions and production techniques in agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing.

16. As the Economist noted, "Biotech is the first business with enough glamour to persuade eminent scientists that the entrepreneurial spirit and academic respectability are not mutually exclusive."

17. All countries will have to allow an increasing place for values and ethics in the school curriculum. Some 5,000 US schools now teach the philosophy-for-children syllabus developed by Matthew Lipman with the Institute for the advancement of Philosophy for Children. Chicago, Los Angeles, and St. Louis, along with dozens of school districts throughout the US, have created "values training" or " character instruction" courses as a part of the school curriculum.

18. In Michigan, Hawaii, Missouri, New Jersey, California and Tennessee, state legislatures have made it mandatory for local school districts to get ethics in the classroom.

19. The ethical problems of surrogacy, biotechnology, and other biomedical issues will only increase as we approach the millennium. We must try to anticipate the future of biotechnology to prepare us for the spiritual dilemmas we will face.
 
 

Chapter 9: Religious Revival of the Third Millennium

1. At the dawn of the third millennium, there are unmistakable signs of a worldwide multidenominational religious revival. American baby boomers who rejected organized religion in the 1970's are returning to church with their children in tow or joining the New Age movement.

2. Chinese and Soviet young people are fascinated by religion and enjoy attending church to the dismay of their Communist-schooled elders.

3. Religious belief is intensifying worldwide under the gravitational pull of the year 2000, the millennium. Described first in the Old Testament Book of Daniel and then in the New Testament Book of Revelation 20: 1-7, the millennium is the 1,000 year period when Christ and his saints will reign supreme on earth in peace and joy.

4. When people believe "the time is at hand," they typically cluster into small groups around colorful, eccentric leaders. echoing past movements, millions today are attracted to the unorthodox ends of the religious spectrum: from New Age channelers to "speaking in Tongues" charismatics to scandal-prone TV preachers.

5. Science and technology do not tell us what life means. We learn that through literature, the arts and spirituality.

6. Declines in Mainline religion: Mainline churches fare well in stable eras but decline in times of great change. Overall membership would have declined a lot more without huge increases among fundamentalists and evangelicals.

7. Spirituality, Yes. Organized Religion, No. If Americans are "religious", it is without belonging to a particular religion or church. The evidence from a number of polls suggests the more correct term is "spiritual."

8. 1988 Gallup poll showed that 59 percent complain their churches or synagogues are too concerned with "organizational as opposed to theological or spiritual issues." college-educated people are particularly critical of this lack of spiritual nurturing.

9. While the center--mainline Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish groups--has shrunk, hundreds of smaller, more decentralized "made-in America" churches, both fundamentalist and alternative, have flourished.

10. In turbulent times, in times of great change, people head for the two extremes: fundamentalism and personal, spiritual experience. Millions of Americans have studied yoga, meditation, or other disciplines adopted from the Eastern religions.

11. Fundamentalism offers a return to simpler times, when values were more clear-cut.

12. New Age adherents take a different tack, rejecting outside authority, turning inward to seek guidance, perhaps through Eastern religion, meditation, or the human potential movement. The way religion is presented traditionally has spoken to our inner selves less and less. People want a living, feeling experience of spirituality. They learn to get in touch with the soul.

13. In the US, 69 percent of parents are seeing to it that their children get religion education, according to a 1988 Gallup poll.

14. Considering television's potential service to education, the preachers are way ahead of the teachers.

15. New Age movement: Most agree that the New Age has its roots in the human potential movement and that it has to do with a complex awareness--of the oneness of creation, the limitless potential of humanity, and the possibility of transforming the self and today's world into a better one. It is a different perspective on life, a holistic view of life. Ninety five percent of the readers of New Age Journal are college-educated, with average household incomes of $47,500. New Agers represent the most affluent, well-educated, successful segment of the baby boom.

16. Mainline Marketing: Jack Sims, a former pastor and religious consultant in Placential California big three are:

    a. advertise, so people know where the churches are;
    b. emphasize product benefits, such as social club or nursery school;
    c. be nice to new people--good customer relations.

17. The real story of American religion today is about aging donors, declining revenues, declining market share and a changing market.

18. The syllabus of Stanford University Graduate School of Business's "Creativity in Business" course taught by Michael Ray lists meditation, chanting, and dream work. Yoga, Zen and tarot cards are also part of the class.

19. As the symbolic year 2000 approaches, humanity is not abandoning science, but through this religious revival, we are reaffirming the spiritual in what is now a more balanced quest to better our lives and those of our neighbors.
 
 

Chapter 10: Triumph of the Individual

1. The great unifying theme at the conclusion of the 20th century is the triumph of the individual. Threatened by totalitarianism for much of this century, individuals are meeting the millennium more powerful than ever before.

2. It is an ethical philosophy that elevates the individual to the global level; we all are responsible for preserving the environment, preventing nuclear warfare, eliminating poverty. Individualism however, does recognize that individual energy matters. When people satisfy genuine achievement needs--in art, business, or science--society gains.

3. This new era of the individual is happening simultaneously with the new era of globalization.

4. Within all collective structures--organized religion, unions, the Communist party, big business, political parties, cities, government--there is the possibility of hiding from one's individual responsibility. At the level of the individual that possibility does not exist. There is no place to hide.

5. From individualism to community: one can build community, the free association of individuals. In community there is no place to hid either. Everyone knows who is contributing who is not.

6. Individuals seek community; avoiders of responsibility too often hid in the collective.

7. The labor union philosophy of treating everyone exactly the same is completely out of sync with today's sentiment that individual differences, especially those reflecting contributions to enterprise, must be noted and rewarded.

8. New technologies have changed the importance of scale and location and extended the power of individuals.

9. The shift is from party politics to entrepreneurial politics. The new breed of politicians have shaped a Congress into an institution that encourages entrepreneurial activity and large personal enterprises.

10. There are fewer dictators on the planet today because they can no longer control information. With individuals' power extended by the computer, citizens can keep tab on governments a lot more efficiently than governments can keep tabs on people.

11. Global television and videocassettes are the ultimate in broadcasting and the ultimate in narrowcasting. Computers, cellular phones, and fax machines empower individuals, rather than oppress them, as previously feared. Meanwhile, governments are scrambling to figure out how to get technology to work for them.

12. Ever wonder why fax machines have become so popular while high tech electronic mail is such a slow poke? Through the technology of the telephone you receive a fax, which you then rip off the machine and proceed to cut up, photocopy, mark up, and otherwise be physically engaged with--high touch. Also, you can write (or draw) something longhand and send it over the wires. with electronic mail there is no high touch, just high tech.

13. For the first time in history, the link between a person's place of work and his or her home is being broken.

14. People are moving from cities and suburbs to rural areas. They are abandoning cities for quality-of-life reasons: low crime rates, comparatively low housing costs, recreational opportunities, and perhaps most of all, a return to community values.

15. People working in "electronic cottages" today might be among the first settlers in the new heartland, before the end of the decade.

16. The new electronic heartland will be peopled by individuals who are not location-dependent, not location bound.

17. When the focus was on the institution, individuals got what suited the institution; everyone got the same thing. No more. With the rise of the individual has come the primacy of the consumer. It has been said for many years: the customer is king. Now it is true.

18. Recognition of the individual is the thread connecting every trend described in this book. Individual contributions to enterprise are rewarded with a customized compensation package of bonuses and stock ownership, rather than a uniform system that treats everyone the same.

19. Any well-trained person could be manager. A leader is an individual who builds followership by ethical conduct and by creating an environment where the unique potential of one individual can be actualized.

20. The new responsibility of society is to reward the initiative of the individual.