Welcome to the UW-L History Department Advising Home Page
Career Options: Wondering what you can do with a History degree? Past UW La Crosse graduates in History have taken jobs as in classrooms, museums, state and county historical societies, archives, newspapers, publishing houses; in federal, state, and local bureaucracy, and as independent consultants and contractors. Many have continued their studies at graduate and professional schools, particularly in public administration, education, law, and history. There are many options! Review all the information provided here. Take advantage of all the resources available to you through the Career Services Center. The Center is the best resource for assistance with career planning, assessments, internships, job market information, job search services, and alumni services. Below, you will find links to professional History organizations, such as the American Historical Association and the Organization of American Historians, with additional information useful for career planning. Finally, check our calendar for announcements and upcoming events, and keep abreast of postings on our departmental and faculty bulletin boards. Below are some topics you can explore:
Why should you become a historian? What are the challenges and rewards? What do historians really do? While our capstone course HIS 490 will answer all of these questions, most students leave this until the last year at UWL. Try to take the course earlier--the fall of your junior year--and in the meantime, use the resources on this page to explore your career options in history.
While most UWL History Department students are enrolled in a secondary education program and subsequently become Social Science, History, or Civics teachers, there are many other alternatives. As with any Liberal Studies major, there are many possibilities. UWL History graduates are active in all types of endeavors, in journalism, public history, law, public administration, the foreign service, and higher education. A history degree provides you with many marketable skills such as communication skills in reading, writing, speaking and listening; skills in analytical, logical, and critical thinking; knowledge of the development and interaction of human cultures; understanding of concepts, ideas and systems of thought that underlie human activities; understanding of and sensitivity to cultural diversity in the world, as well as the variety of human experience; understanding of the social, political and economic frameworks of societies within the global context; as well as an understanding of nature, including the role of science and technology in environmental and social change.
Check out what these professional historians have to say on the topic:
- Blackey, Robert. Why Become a Historian? Ten Essays . . . (http://www.historians.org/pubs/Free/why/blackeyintro.htm)
- Stearns, Peter N. Why Study History? (http://www.historians.org/pubs/Free/WhyStudyHistory.htm)
For more information, consult publications about the history profession, such as:
- Gardner, James B. and Peter S. LaPaglia. Public History: Essays in the Field. Melbourne, Fla.: Krieger Publishing Company, 1999.
- Gustafson, Melanie. Becoming a Historian: A Survival Manual. Washington, D.C.: The Committee on Women Historians and the American Historical Association, 2003.
- Kammen, Carol. On Doing Local History: Reflections on What Local Historians Do, Why, and What it Means. Nashville TN: The American Association for State and Local History, 1996.
- National Council on Public History. A Guide to Graduate Programs in Public History.
- Schulz, Constance, Page Putnam Miller, Aaron Marrs, and Kevin Allen. Careers for Students of History. Washington, D.C.: The American Historical Association, the National Council for Public History, and the Public History Program of the University of South Carolina, 2002.
History advisors have copies of some of these texts or you can order them through your favorite bookstore or directly through the American Historical Association's publications catalog online: http://www.theaha.org/pubs. Additionally, you can consult the websites of the two major U.S. historical organizations, the AHA and the OHA:
Or, you could also consult the following websites for additional information about specific areas of specialization:
****Not all of these sites have employment information, but we have listed them to give you an idea of the different settings where professional historians are presently working****
American Association for State and Local History (http://www.aaslh.org/)
American Association for the History of Medicine (http://www.histmed.org/)
American Association of Museums (http://www.aam-us.org/)
American Library Association (http://www.ala.org/ala/education/educationcareers.htm)
Association for Documentary Editing (http://www.documentaryediting.org/)
Association for Living History, Farm, and Agricultural Museums (http://www.alhfam.org/)
Association of American Publishers (http://www.publishers.org/)
Berkshire Conference of Women Historians (http://www.berksconference.org/)
Committee on Lesbian and Gay History (http://www.clghistory.org/)
Conference on Latin American History (http://h-net.msu.edu/~clah/)
Editorial Freelancers Association (http://www.the-efa.org/services/jobline.html)
H-Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online job list (includes fellowships!) (http://www.h-net.msu.edu/jobs/)
History Associates, Inc. (http://www.historyassociates.com/)
National Archives and Records Administration (http://www.nara.gov/)
National Coalition of Independent Scholars (http://www.ncis.org/)
National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (http://www.ncshpo.org/)
National Council for the Social Studies (http://www.ncss.org/)
National Council on Public History (http://www.ncph.org/)
National Historical Publications and Records Commission, NARA (http://www.archives.gov/nhprc/)
National Park Service (http://www.cr.nps.gov/history)
National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service (http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/)
National Trust for Historic Preservation (http://www.nthp.org/)
Oral History Association (http://alpha.dickinson.edu/organizations/oha/)
Phi Alpha Theta (History Honor Society) (http://www.phialphatheta.org/)
Smithsonian Institution (http://smithsonian.org/)
Social Science History Association (http://www.ssha.org/)
Society for History in the federal Government (http://www.shfg.org/)
Society of American Archivists (http://www.archivists.org/employment)
Society of Architectural Historians (http://www.sah.org/)
State Historical Society of Iowa (http://www.iowahistory.org/)
United States Office of Personnel Management (http://www.opm.gov/)
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (http://www-tradoc.monroe.army.mil/historian/default.htm)
U.S. Department of State (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/)
Wisconsin Historical Society (http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/)
A more thorough listing of links to Professional Historical Societies affiliated to the American Historical Association can be found at: (http://www.historians.org/affiliates/index.htm)
Begin by visiting UW La Crosse's Career Services Center to explore your options and conduct a self-assessment. Think about your career motivations, your talents, and where you want to be in 5 or 10 years. Here are some career paths to consider:
- Business and Marketing: the skills in writing, research, and communication that you obtain in a History major or minor can help you in obtaining an advanced degree in business, like the M.B.A. Consult the UWL College of Business website: http://www.uwlax.edu/BA/
- Education: http://www.uwlax.edu/soe/directory/index.html
- Higher Education: teaching or administrative positions in colleges and universities, after obtaining an advanced degree, can be a rewarding experience. Obtaining an M.A. (1-2 years), and then a Ph.D. (4-7 years) is the beginning of this process. You will need high grades and much determination; consult with your advisor and explore the possibility in the HIS 490 capstone experience. The graduate school application process is long, tedious, and expensive, see below for more details.
- Journalism, Publishing, Film, Communications and Mass Media: History's emphasis on writing, research, and communication skills are in high demand in these fields. Securing a toe-hold in the industry begins with your involvement in the campus newspaper or radio, becoming the public relations expert for your student organization, your film class project, or joining the debate team. Make sure you get that extracurricular involvement! Alternatively, intern or volunteer--and get a good letter of recommendation from your supervisor. Network, network, network! Remember to keep samples of all your work, build up your portfolio. Worried about editorial freelancing? Check out this website (http://www.the-efa.org/services/jobline.html).
- Law: with a history major or minor, you can seek additional training to become a paralegal, law clerk, lawyer, lobbyist or public advocate. You will need a strong GPA, a good score on the LSAT. Concurrently, you may want to major or minor in Political Science or Public Administration. History courses--particularly those with a heavy research and writing emphasis, as well as those on U.S. history--are a bonus. Don't forget to work on your public speaking and presentation skills! And of course, there is all of the practical experience from becoming involved in Student Government, working on political campaigns, and working on behalf of great causes. Consult the "Legal Education" webpage of the American Bar Association for information about the legal profession: (http://www.abanet.org/legaled/home.html)
- Non-Governmental Organizations: NGOs complement the work of local, state, federal and international agencies, providing a variety of often non-profit services in a variety of settings, such as social services, community health, community development, historical preservation, education, the arts, as well as international assistance and development. Your historical training will introduce you to the complexity of the factors involved, and your writing and critical thinking skills will be put to use. Language training--and practical living experience abroad, gained through your semester-abroad exchange program--will prove a bonus.
- Public History, Archival, Libraries, and Museums: with a history major or minor, and particularly through the public history internship experience, you can explore your options in these areas. Your writing, research, and communication skills will be put to use interpreting historical sites for others, setting up exhibits, conducting historical surveys, consulting, and providing different types of services such as conservation, reference, or assessment. See below under internships. Interested in a career as a Historic Preservation Officer? Check out the website of the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (http://www.ncshpo.org/). For a more in-depth discussion about employment and career opportunities in libraries, consult the website of the American Library Association at: http://www.ala.org/ala/hrdr/careersinlibraries/careerslibraries.htm.
Look through the resources listed in this web site, and use all the resources available to you at UW La Crosse's Career Services Center. The Center is the best resource for assistance with career planning, assessments, internships, job market information, job search services, and alumni services. The Career Center offers individual counseling as well as a wide variety of workshops.
We also invite you to talk to the History Department faculty concerning employment opportunities, internships, study abroad, and graduate school. Do not be intimidated. You are not bothering us! We are here to help you! Get to know us! Let us know who you are, what interests you. Your advisor and other faculty need to be able to write convincingly about your work and potential . . . drop by during office hours to begin exploring career options, internships, and graduate school. Don't put off your visit until your junior or senior year. See us as soon as possible. Drop by during office hours, or arrange a meeting via e-mail or telephone.
With the B.A., you spend up to two years learning a modern language; with the B.S., you conduct additional coursework in the sciences. This is an important decision with long-term implications. Think about the following:
- Will you have the language skills to succeed in the workplace?
- Do you see yourself living in a major metropolitan area where business and public affairs are regularly conducted in languages other than English?
- Are you thinking about graduate studies in history? Most Ph.D. programs require the ability to read in at least one language other than English.
- Are you considering international journalism or business?
- Will you work in the public sector, in education or health?
Chances are you will need to work in a language other than English to succeed. UWL offers training in Chinese, French, German, Spanish, Russian and other modern languages. Explore the options! If you have already completed language training in High School, you may already be ahead of the game. See the Department of Modern Languages for additional information on this topic.
For the BA, you will need to complete the equivalent of two years of training in a modern language (GER 202, FRE 202, SPA 202, or MLG 202 or MLG 304 or of an ESL proficiency score of 80 or above on the La Crosse Battery of exams for non-native speakers of English).
For the BS, you will need to complete two additional courses:
1. The first is to be selected from a second General Education science course different from your first General Education course in this category, selected from among the following courses: ANT 101; BIO 102, 103 or 105; CHM 100 or 103; ESC 101; HON 290 or 295; MIC 100; PHY 103, 106, 125, 203; AST/PHY 155 or 156; PSY 107 or you can complete a second science course selected from ENV 201 or PHL 334.
2. Complete a research-emphasis course or sequence of courses in the major; for History, this is HIS 490.
Regardless of whether you complete the BA or BS, you will then need to decide whether your major will be a general major in history, a history major with regional emphasis, or whether you want to complete the teacher certification program (Broadfield Social Studies Major). The requirements for the majors are located on our Majors and Minors page.
Advanced Placement is available for Advanced Placement Examinations in American history or European history as developed and administered by the Educational Testing Services (ETS), Princeton New Jersey. Information is available from the department chair.
Courses numbered HIS 100-229 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores, those numbered HIS 300-399 are open to sophomores, juniors, seniors, and to those freshmen who have appropriate General Education background.
+ above a course number indicates a General Education course.
You have three basic options:
(all colleges) - 24 credits
Core Requirements - HIS 200; 3 credits from HIS 210, 230, 240, 250, 285; 3 credits from each of the following categories:
Category I; History of Women: HIS 301, 305, 315, 370, 371, 372, 386
Category II; U.S. History: HIS 308, 310, 313, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 323, 324, 325, 336, 343, 345
3 credits from any two Regional Cultural zones in Category III; Asia: HIS 316, 329, 334, 335, 339; Latin America: HIS 341, 342, 344, 347, 356; Europe: HIS 311, 314, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 354, 355; Africa: HIS 385, 387, 388
Category IV; Classical World/Religions: HIS 204, 275, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 333, 340, 353, 365, 366, 367
3 credits elective from HIS 200-300 level courses
(History minors in teacher certification programs also are required to take HIS 307 for a total of 27 credits.)
History Minor With Regional Emphasis
(all colleges) - 24 credits
Core Requirements - HIS 200; 3 credits from HIS 210, 230, 240, 250, 285; 3 credits from each of the following categories:
Category I; History of Women: HIS 301, 305, 315, 370, 371, 372, 386
Category IV; Classical World/Religions: HIS 204, 275, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 333, 340, 353, 365, 366, 367
9 credits from one focus area selected from:
European focus: HIS 311, 314, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 354, 355
Asian focus: HIS 316, 329, 334, 335, 339
United States focus: HIS 301, 308, 310, 313, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 323, 324, 325, 336, 343, 345
Latin American focus: HIS 341, 342, 344, 347, 356
Ancient/Medieval World focus: HIS 204, 275, 327, 328, 329, 331, 332, 333, 340, 346, 353, 365, 366, 367, 372
3 credits elective from HIS 200-300 level course
(History minors in teacher certification programs also are required to take HIS 307 for a total of 27 credits.)
Public History Minor
(all colleges) - 24 credits
The public history minor is an interdisciplinary undergraduate curriculum which prepares students to practice history outside of the academy, in non-teaching capacities, in the service of select public needs.
ENG 307 or 308
POL 211 or MGT 308; and
HIS 320, 390, 450
A focus must be selected from one of the following options:
Archaeology focus: ARC 195, 250, 300
Public administration focus: POL 313, 314, 315
Environmental focus: ENV 201, HIS 317, GEO 200
Department of History Style Guide
The purpose of this website is to provide a working guide for creating an effective essay. Effective writing is an essential tool for every discipline and as such, it is important that every essay follows a coherent pattern. Throughout this website, you will find a style guide that addresses the typical pattern for creating an effective essay.
So, what is effective writing? Effective writing is more than strong points and descriptive phrases, though these are important concepts. Effective writing is being able to convey a topic or argument in an understandable method. The method for creating an effective essay we will explain is as follows:
A. What is an introduction?
B. Topic/Lead Sentences
A. What is a conclusion?
B. Why is a conclusion important?
A. Types of Sources
B. Evaluation of Sources
C. Proper Citation
The subject about which you will be writing. An assignment may suggest several different ways to examine a broad topic, or look at a broad topic and leave the details more open to you examination.
ü Think about what the assignment asks you to do.
ü Investigate your topic
ü Focus on one aspect of the topic
ü Consider if that aspect will make for a good paper
ü Try to write on something that interests you.
The First Sentence and Over-Generalization:
DO NOT MAKE OVERLY BROAD GENERALIZATIONS OR STATEMENTS THAT YOU CANNOT PROVE. Good academic writing does not do this and writing such statements is simply a waste of space and time (yours and your professor’s). Especially in the context of history courses it is almost always a bad idea to over-generalize temporally (over time) and spatially because the study of history tends to focus on how the world and its parts change in different ways over time. In fact, throughout your written assignments it is best to avoid sentences that begin with phrases such as: “from the beginning of time,” “throughout history,” “people all over the world,” and “as everybody knows.”
Example of what NOT to write: “All people everywhere from the beginning of time have always loved to
learn about history.”
Makes an argument, states the conclusions you have drawn about your topic. Informs reader about the direction you will be taking with your paper. The thesis should be focused enough to be proven within the scope of your paper
ü State your assertions
ü Summarize the main idea, then list the other main points you wish to include
ü Use all info from points 1 through 3 to write a working thesis, you will revise it later.
o Avoid making your thesis too broad or too narrow. If it is too broad, you will not be able to effectively support it in the length of the paper, too narrow and it will fail to fulfill the assignment.
o Make sure readers can easily identify the thesis statement.
o When writing in response to an assigned prompt, DO NOT just reword the professor’s question. Take your own position.
o Good thesis statements do not merely list points or state facts they express one’s opinion or one’s position on the issue or issues in question.
o Excellent thesis statements show relationships and processes that are of interest and strongly make a point.
Not so good: The United Kingdom
is relatively industrialized, while
Better: British imperialism in
Style and Format
It is important to make sure that there is continuity in your paper; essentially, there needs to be a reason for why you talked about a certain issue where. Having an outline of the points you want to make will give you a great starting point for organizing your paper. Make sure that your paragraphs flow in a logical order (present your points in the order you want your reader to read them) and provide enough information for the reader to understand.
ü The body is the heart of your paper. This is where you discuss your facts, research, and make your argument.
ü Be sure to defend your argument. Do not simply quote, but rephrase and analyze your sources.
ü Re read this section and make sure that your points are arranged in the manner you want.
o Example, if you need to introduce the background of the topic, it should come before you make your argument.
ü Make sure you have transitional sentences between paragraphs
ü Make sure there is a topic/lead sentence for every paragraph
After you have decided how to format your paper, it is important to create the paragraphs that will form that style. In every paragraph you write, there must be a topic, or lead sentence. This sentence will guide the reader on what the paragraph is about.
What is a conclusion?
ü Restate your initial claim (be more specific and complete than in the introduction) -State Practical Application, New Significance, and/or New Research (in any combination.)
ü Bring in new/different ideas (possibly ones that disagree with you) and/or limitations of your argument
ü Possibly suggest further research.
Why is a Conclusion Important?
ü Make sure readers have clear understanding of what paper was trying to say.
ü Insure readers understand importance of paper’s points.
ü Place paper in context
ü Express possible limitations of your paper/research
ü Other Suggestions:
ü Do not use the phrase “In Conclusion…”
ü Don’t overstate findings
ü Don’t just restate the introduction in different words (though you do want to touch on points from the introduction.)
Editing and Proofing
Proof Reading Papers
ü Use computer spell checking and then manual spell check. Remember that a spelling checker won’t catch mistakes with homonyms (“they’re,” “their,” “there”) or certain typos (“it” for “hit”).
ü Work from a printout, not the computer screen. This makes mistakes easier to catch.
ü Read out loud. This is especially helpful for spotting run-on sentences, but you’ll also hear other problems that you May not see when reading silently.
Paper Editing Checklist
Definition of a sentence in passive voice: A sentence in which the subject is the thing being acted upon (bread is eaten) and not the person, people, or thing performing an action (I eat bread). With passive sentences inclusion of an actor is optional (bread is eaten OR bread is eaten by me). Because of this passive sentences make it much too easy to neglect or de-emphasize demonstrating responsibility for and the causes and effects of events and processes.
Example: (Active Voice): Both Democrat and Republican Senators agreed to the legislation.
· Make sure each word group you have punctuated as a sentence contains a grammatically complete and independent thought that can stand alone as an acceptable sentence.
· Too many equally weighted phrases and clauses produce tiresome sentences.
· Place modifiers near the words they describe; be sure the modified words actually appear in the sentence. (A modifier is a phrase or word meant to describe or explain part of a sentence. In example 1, the phrase before the comma modifies the subject of the main sentence, which is I.)
· Be sure you use grammatically equal sentence elements to express two or more matching ideas or items in a series.
· All pronouns must clearly refer to definite nouns. Use it, they, this, that, these, those, and which carefully to prevent confusion
· Make sure to determine whether the pronoun is being used as a subject, or an object, or a possessive in the sentence, and select the pronoun form to match (ex. “he,” “him,” “himself”).
§ *Use commas to signal nonrestrictive or nonessential material, to prevent confusion, and to indicate relationships among ideas and sentence parts.
§ *Unnecessary commas make sentences difficult to read.
§ *Do not link independent clauses with a comma unless you also use a coordinating conjunction such as and, or, but, for, nor, so, and yet. Otherwise use a period or semicolon, or rewrite the sentence.
· Apostrophes indicate possession for nouns (“Sue’s car” or “several peoples’ jobs) but not for personal pronouns (its, your, their, and whose).
· Apostrophes also indicate omissions in contractions (“it’s” = “it is”).
· In general, they are not used to indicate plurals
· Some pairs that are commonly confused: Effect/Affect, Lead/Led, and Accept/Except
§ *Check a dictionary to find the right choice when encountering such word options to find which one is right for you.
· Spelling errors are often times perceived as a reflection of the writer’s careless attitude toward the whole project.
· It is important to not allow your hard work to be marred in this way
· In addition to comprehensive dictionaries, you may want to use electronic spell checkers, spelling dictionaries and lists of frequently misspelled words found in handbooks.
ü Primary sources are the evidence left behind by participants or observers of a given event or during a particular period of time.
ü Primary sources allow us to make personal connections to the past.
ü Primary sources are the evidence used by historians to support an interpretation of the past.
ü The availability and kinds of primary sources vary with time period and topic.
ü Primary materials also need to be carefully read and interpreted. Some questions to ask include:
o Who created the source and for what original purpose?
o Is the document meant to persuade or inform?
o Was the source originally meant to be private or public?
o When was the source created? Soon after the event, years later?
· Types of primary sources include:
ü Published materials: Books (including memoirs), magazines, newspapers
ü Unpublished materials (these can later be transcribed and published): Diaries, letters, manuscripts
ü Records: Government documents, census data, birth certificates, organizational minutes, business reports
ü Images: Photographs, film, art and posters, advertisements, maps
ü Audio: Oral histories, interviews, recordings
ü Artifacts: Buildings, tombstones, clothing
ü Secondary sources are accounts of the past created by people, usually historians, writing about events sometime after they happened.
ü Secondary sources usually come in the form of books and journal articles.
ü Secondary sources are an analysis of past events and times based on evidence provided by primary sources.
ü Secondary sources are useful to:
o Provide an introduction to a topic.
o Provide historical/broader context for a topic.
o Provide historiographical context for a topic.
o Provide hints on where to find primary evidence.
Analyzing Sources: Primary and Secondary
ü Analyzing primary sources requires the historian to ask questions, visualize possible answers, find factual background data, and put together an analytical response.
ü To evaluate primary sources, explore the following questions:
o Who wrote the text and what is the author's place in society?
o Why do you think the author wrote it? What evidence, within the text tells you why he or she wrote it?
o What is the intended audience of the text? How does the text reveal the intended audience?
o What is the text trying to do? Is the text factual, opinionated, or propaganda?
o Is the author and text credible and reliable?
o How do the ideas and values in the source differ from the ideas and values of today?
ü Analyzing secondary sources requires a critical examination of credibility, reliability, and accuracy of any given source.
ü To evaluate secondary sources, explore the following questions:
o Who is the author? What credentials does the author have that enables him or her to write on the subject?
o What is the reputation of the publisher or the periodical?
o What is the audience of the source? Is it a general or a scholarly source?
o What is the purpose of the source? Is it informative or is it persuasive?
o What primary sources has the historian used? Have they been used effectively?
o Why did the author write the book? Who is the author and what is the context in which she or he wrote the book?
(This Style Guide was prepared by Amanda Arentz, Ashley VonRuden, J. P. Krause, Harley Oemig, Kevin Balk, Corrina Dedrich, Melissa Hoppe, Patrick Leigle, Emily Ness, Kelli Ryan, Ben Wandschneider and Kyler Westerfeldt as a collaborative project in HIS 200: Historiography and Historical Methods – spring semester, 2008.)
Chicago/Turabian Citation Style Guide
●Sources in Performing Arts
F= Footnote or Endnote
Ex F=Example in Footnote/Endnote
Ex B=Example in Bibliography
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name.
B: Orwell, George. 1984.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name,
F: George Orwell, 1984 (New York: Signet Classic, 1950), 51-53.
Books with multiple authors:
Author’s Last Name, First and next Author’s First then Last
Silber, Laura, and Allan Little.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name, and next Author’s First and Last
Name, Title (
F: Laura Silber and Allan Little,
Books with an editor or translator in place of an author:
Editor’s Last Name, First and next Editor’s First then Last
Name, eds. or trans. Title.
Cheng, Pei-kai, Michael Lestz, and Jonathon D. Spence, eds.
The Search for Modern
Ex F: Translator’s First and Last Name, and next Translator’s First
and Last Name, eds. or trans.,
F: Pei-kai Cheng, Michael Lestz, and Jonathan D. Spence, eds., The Search for Modern China (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999), 445.
Extra Information: Use the editors or translators the same you would use authors, just add eds. for editors and trans. for translators.
Books with an editor or translator in addition to an author:
Author’s Last Name, First.
Title. Translated or Edited by Translator or Editor.
B: Zhong, Luo Guan. Romance of the Three Kingdoms: San Guo Yan Yi. Translated by C.H. Brewitt-Taylor. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1925.
Ex F: Author’s First and Last Name,
Title, trans. or ed. by Translator or Editor (
F: Luo Guan Zhong, Romance of the Three Kingdoms: San Guo Yan Yi, trans. C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1925), 247-248.
Extra Information: When adding the Editor or Translator, use First then Last Name. For Bibliography write out Translated or Edited by. For Footnotes use the abbreviations.
If you cite a book published in more than one edition, always indicate in your reference list which edition you consulted because editions may differ. “Revised editions”-include the number or description of the edition after the title. Abbreviate such wording as “second edition, revised and enlarged” as 2nd ed.; abbreviate “Revised Edition” as Rev. ed. Include the publication date only of the edition you are citing, not of any pervious editions. “Reprint Editions”- cite the reprint edition if you used it.
Specific Volume: If the volume has a title different from the work as a whole list the title of the specific volume, followed by both the volume numbers and the general title. Abbreviate vol. and use Arabic numbers for volume numbers. If the volumes are not titled individually and you are citing only one, add the volume number to the reference list entry. In a parenthetical citation, put the volume umber immediately before the page number, separated by a colon and no intervening spaces. Put information about the individual editor or author of the volume after the individual volume title and before the volume number and general title in a reference list entry.
B: Myrdal, Gunnar. Population: A Problem for Democracy. 1940. Reprint. (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith,1956) p. ?
ExB: Authors Name. Year of publication. Book Title. City of publication: Company.
Markman, Charles W. 1991.
ExB: Last, First M. or Organization. Title of Document. # Cong. (if applicable),
# session, Report #. Place: Publisher, Date.
Environment. Global Nuclear Technology. Reported by Xavier Wilkins
and Christian Tatsch. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1974. Committee Print 12.
ExF: #. First M. Last or Organization, Title of Document, # Cong. (if applicable),
session, Report # (Place: Publisher, Date), Pages.
F: 29. U. S. Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary, Sex Tourism Prohibition Improvement Act of 2002, 107th Cong., 2d Session, Report no. 107-525 (Washington, D. C.: G.P.P., 2002), 14-15.
Author, title of page in quotes, title or owner of this site, URL [access date].
10. Jeff Rybacki, “
How to cite an electronic journal article
Journal articles that you access on line should include a full citation including author, title of the article/review, title and publication information of the journal, and web access date and url.
No named author
Name of the owner of the site, title in quotes, title or owner of the site, URL [access date].
10. Green Bay Packers, “News,” Green Bay Packers, http://www.packers.com/
news/ [accessed March 8, 2008].
Informal site with no title
ExF: organization name, description of content, URL [access date].
F: 10. Camp Taconic Aumni, 1995 photo gallery, http://www.taconicalumni.org/ 1955.htm [accessed June 1, 2005].
ExF: author of site, title in quotes, blog name, entry posted (place full month, date, year), URL [access date].
F: 10. Faiza Al-Arji, “Going among small worries, and big…,” A
Citing a comment posted on a blog
ExF: Comment author’s name or pseud. in brackets if not complete or pseudonym, comment on (article title commenting on in quotes), blog name, comment posted (place full month, date, year), URL [accessed].
F: a.decker [pseudo.], comment on “Kuwaiti Range Hazards,” Miserable Donuts, comment posted February 16, 2008, https://www.blogger.com/comment.g? blogID=13196755&postID=5203123989481772122 [accessed March 8, 2008].
Sources in Performing Arts
ExF: individual performer, instrument, title of work (if titles of shorter works, use quotes, all others italicize), by (composer), directed by (director), venue, location, date.
F: 10. Elinor Niemsito, harp, “Candlelight Carol,” by John Rutter, Viterbo Fine Arts Center, La Crosse, December 9, 2007.
Paintings, Sculptures, photographs, and other artworks
Name of artist, title (quote only photographs, all others italicize), date of its creation (use ca. if approximate), identify source, publication info if in published source, name of institution it is housed in, location.
10. Georgia O’Keefe, The Cliff Chimneys,
11. Ansel Adams, “North Dome, Basket Dome,
12. Georgia O’Keefe, The Cliff Chimneys,
1938, in Barbara Buhler Lynes, Lesley Poling-Kempes, and
Fredrick W. Turner, Georgia O’Keefe and
ExB: Last Name, First Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume and issue number (Date of Publication): Page numbers.
Beattie, J.M. “The pattern of Crime in
F: Ann Grodzins Gold. “Grains of Truth: Shifting Hierarchies of food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales.” History of Religions 38, no.2 (1998): 150-71.
Foot notes and end notes- Format notes in the same way as bibliographies except the author’s name is not reversed and it is first line indented instead of hanging indent.
Article Title- List complete articles titles and subtitles, separate the title from the subtitle with a colon. Words normally italicized in the title remain so. Do not put a period or comma after titles ending with a question mark or exclamation point.
Date of Publication- Use the date of publication used by the journal. Include the year and month or season if the journal does. Capitalize the season. If an article has not been published yet place the word forthcoming in the parentheses and omit the page numbers.
Special Issues and Supplements- If the special issue has a title and editor of its own, include both in the citations. Add the words special issue before the journal title and follow it with a period. Supplements are numbered, often, with an S as part of the page numbers. Use a comma between the volume number and supplement number.
ExB: Author. “Title.” kind of thesis, academic institution, date.
Murphy, Priscilla Coit.
“What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public
Debate.” PhD diss.,
F: 1. Karen Leigh Culcasi, “Cartographic Representations of
Kurdistan in the Print Media” (master’s thesis,
For online database, add name of database, URL and access date following institutional information.
and Papers presented at Meetings
ExB: Author. “Title.” List of sponsorship, location, date of meeting.
“Voice and Inequality: The
Transformation of American Civic Democracy.” Presidential
address, annual meeting of the American Political Science
F: 2. John Troutman,
American Indians and the Politics of Music, 1890-1935” (lecture,
and Personal Communications
ExF: Interviewee, interviewer, place, date, location of any tapes or transcripts(if available).
F: 14. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20,
1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection,
National Library of Medicine,
Explain if names were withheld in a note or preface. (“All interviews were confidential.”)
ExB: Author, date, title or type of document, name of collection, name of depository.
Dinkel, Joseph. Description of Louis Agassiz written at
the request of Elizabeth Cary Agassiz.
F: 5. George Creel to Colonel House, September 25, 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.
ExB: Author, “Title of Article,” Title of Magazine, Date, Year.
Eric Wills. “Paradise Lost: McMansions multiply in an
Wills, Eric, “Paradise Lost: McMansions multiply in an
If citing a department or column that appears frequently, capitalize it headline style and do not enclose it in quotation marks. For a department without a named author, use the name of the magazine in place of the author in a bibliography entry.
ExB: Author (last name, first name). “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper. (Date): pages.
B: Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times, (15 March 1985) sec. 1A, p.6.
F: 1. Author’s full name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper. (Date of Publication) section and page numbers.
Inserting Footnotes into a MS Word document
When you’re working on an academic paper, it is important to cite your references. Using MS Word, it can be very simple to use footnotes in your document to provide citation for sources. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts: the note reference mark and the corresponding note text.
A footnote is a note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. The note comments on and may cite a reference for part of the main body of text. A footnote is normally flagged by a superscript number following that portion of the text the note is in reference to.
Follow these steps to insert footnotes into your document:
1. Place the cursor where the footnote mark should be inserted
2. On the Insert menu, select Reference
3. On the Reference submenu, click Footnote…
4. Make sure Footnote is selected in the Location section
5. Select Bottom of page, if it is not already selected
6. Click Insert
7. Type in citation
Consolidating footnotes within a paragraph
If you have multiple citations from the same source within one paragraph, you may consolidate these citations into one at the end of the paragraph. Simply combine all of the page numbers in one author/title/source citation.
How to cite multiple references from the same source
The first reference to any source always
includes complete information.
Subsequent references to that reference may be
abbreviated to include the author’s last name and a page number.
If you are citing more than one work by an author, then
these subsequent references need to include an abbreviated
Use the resources available to you through UW La Crosse's Career Services Office, but also remember to make the most of faculty, alumni, family, and friend networks.
As early as your sophomore or junior year, attend internships & job search workshops. Learn how to research companies, promote your skills and experience, and identify the hidden job market. The Career Services Office offers several workshops throughout each semester to help students. To view an updated list of workshops, please visit the Career Services website. Topics may include:
- Internship & Job Search Strategies
- Résumé and Curriculum Vitae Writing
- Cover Letter Writing (this can serve as a trial run for your graduate school Statement of Purpose
- Interviewing Techniques
- Graduate School Resources
Attend career fairs and other events. Several career fairs and other events are offered throughout the year to help students and alumni research employers and internship & job opportunities. Check the Career Services website to see what events are scheduled for this semester.
During your sophomore, junior or senior year, register with Career Services to take full advantage of internships & job search services, including on-campus interviews and the candidate referral program.
Also participate in on-campus recruiting. Business, industry and government organizations recruit during the fall and spring semesters. School districts recruit primarily during the spring semester.
Prepare a résumé. Visit Career Services website for details on creating a résumé and sample resumes. A résumé is a summary of your educational background, employment, internship, student teaching, volunteer experience, and special skills. It should communicate the potential you have to contribute successfully in a new work setting. As you prepare your résumé, think about the impact it has upon the employer. If it is well done, it can communicate your competence and your interest in the position. Conversely, if it is disorganized or has mistakes, it can communicate a lack of willingness to do a job well. Suggestions are given for headings on your résumé as well as tips to market your skills and accomplishments.
Here are several other Job Search Strategies:
- Visit Career Services website for the following:
- Internship opportunities (See EAGLE Opportunities)
- Job Search Websites – including classified ads, government websites and general job search sites
- Company Websites: Contact agencies, companies or organizations you would like to work for and see if they're hiring
- Talk to your faculty advisor or other instructors
- Talk with family and friends about job possibilities in their organizations
- Talk to classmates--especially those who are older and may have had experience in the job market or at an internship
- Consider volunteering as a way to explore your career options . . . visit the Involvement Center for more information
- Contact employment/temporary placement agencies – they are sometimes placing for permanent employment
Preparing a Curriculum Vitae
If you are going on to grad school, are freelancing, consulting, or working in the area of education or public history, consider preparing a c.v. or curriculum vitae. Here, emphasis is on your academic career and educational achievements, your talents, skills, and other aspects of your life. Candidates most often use a vitae when promoting oneself within professional and academic fields; when applying to graduate or professional programs; and/or employment with international firms. The vitae is most appropriate for candidates that have completed a Masters Degree or a Doctoral Degree.
How does a c.v. differ from a résumé? Curricula vitae and résumés both have similar purposes—as marketing documents that provide key information about your talents, experiences, education, and personal qualities that show you as the ideal candidate. Where résumés tend toward brevity and highlighting marketable skills, vitae lean toward completeness. The 1 to 2-page résumé summarizes educational preparation and experience relevant to one’s career objective. Unlike résumés, curricula vitae can be up to ten pages in length. The average curriculum vitae is two to four pages for a young professional, and six to ten pages for a veteran. The content determines the length of the c.v.
NEVER make a reference to your family, marital status, religion, age, race, or ethnicity. You may of course reveal these in the course of the interview, if they are pertinent to your capacity to perform. However, avoid including statements in any professional documents like "proud father of Billy and Mary, happy husband of Jackie." These statements are not considered appropriate professional behavior. It is in fact, illegal, for people to ask you during your job or graduate school interview about your personal life, marital status, sexual orientation, race or ethnicity, disability, etc. Please refer to the AHA's online Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct, (http://www.historians.org/pubs/Free/ProfessionalStandards.cfm) and make sure you report any irregularities to your advisor for subsequent follow up.
Instead, use the curriculum vitae or c.v. to present your evolution as an individual of unique talent and expertise. Here is a basic outline:
- FULL, FORMAL NAME: centered, all caps.
- Contact Information: Name, phone, cell, e-mail. Make sure that these look and sound professional, and that the message on your answering machine is appropriate.
- Education: Degree, institution, major, minor, date of expected graduation. High School (specify type of diploma, college or AP track, class rank, if available).
- Additional Training and Licensing: Study abroad, summer enrichment programs, research programs, internships, workshops, conferences attended (but did not present at), special skills obtained, etc.
- Languages: Native speaker of X, fluent in Y, elementary reading ability in Z. And yes, American Sign Language and Braille do count!
- Employment history: Give title only, dates of employment, and briefly describe duties.
- Recognitions, Distinctions, Awards, Fellowships, Scholarships: Give full name, date, amount of award if cash prize.
- Publications: Full bibliographic citation, Chicago Manual of Style. If you prepared an Undergraduate Research Project poster or paper, prepared a senior thesis, wrote a column for the paper, published an article in a literary journal, in a newsletter, in the Bulletin of Undergraduate Research, in the Honors Program publication. If it has not yet appeared, but has been accepted for publication or is forthcoming, say so. At bare minimum, list the title of the paper that you complete in your capstone course (HIS 490) and/or honors thesis. If you presented a History Day project, by all means, list it here!
- Presentations: Give title of presentation, place, date.
- Membership in professional organizations or honor societies: List your title, dates of involvement, projects completed.
- Additional Service activities: List your title, dates of involvement, projects completed, briefly describe what this organization does.
- List of references: Name, full title, address, phone/cell, e-mail. Remember to remind these people that someone may contact them about you.
Have your faculty advisor proofread this for you, and ask for her or his advice.
Why do an internship?
What was your last summer job? In today's highly competitive job market, an internship (paid or unpaid) or volunteer work will get you ahead of the herd. Why work at a dead-end job when you can be building up your résumé? An internship will allow you a peek into what you may (or may not) look forward to upon graduation. The internship will help you decide what kind of historian you want to be--or not--and will you make up your mind about whether you should apply for graduate school. You may be happy as a teacher. You may hate museum work. You may find out that your true passion is public history. An internship will help you decide.
If you are ambitious and driven, think EARLY about this. Your sophomore summer year is best spent interning in Washington, D.C., Madison, Chicago, or the Twin Cities--not back home with your High School buddies or arranging a display table at the Mall. You will develop real-life skills. During the day, you experience the hustle and bustle of your career, help staff prepare for meetings, redo their websites, do research and filing (and yes, you will do grunt work), but if you impress your supervisor or mentor with your work, you can count on a great letter of recommendation. Your internship experience may open doors to further professional development. It may bag you your first job. Or, it may help you realize that your talents are best put to work elsewhere.
Make the most of your internship. At night and on weekends, you can socialize with other interns, or check out the cultural sites of interest. Travel--learn who you really are. You will meet other ambitious, driven people like yourself; you will begin to build up the network of friends and contacts needed to succeed professionally. Get an internship! Learn how to put together a museum exhibit, help on a community heritage project, learn the ins and outs of grant-writing, design a tour, learn how to interpret a historical site for visitors, tutor, teach, translate, edit copy . . . there are many possibilities. UWL History Department students have recently interned at:
The Minnesota History Center
The Milwaukee Public Museum
The U.S. Senate
The U.S. Park Service
The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore
The Monroe County (WI) Historical Society
The La Crosse County (WI) Historical Society
Goodhue County (MN) Historical Society
Martha’s Vineyard (MA) Historical Society
City of La Crosse Planning Department
Mississippi Valley Conservancy
How to find an internship position: Think strategically: take a Public History class in the fall or spring of your sophomore class before you apply for the internship. This way, you'll have some skills to offer, and your professor can talk up your class project in the letter of support she or he writes for you. You could also volunteer to transcribe interviews at UWL's Oral History Institute or perhaps help out at the Mississippi Valley Archeology Center, at the Murphy Library's Rare Book Room, or at WLSU Radio. Talk to your advisor--or explore any of the possibilities on this website.
There are a number of other ways to find a position. Take advantage of these resources!
Travel experiences avail you an unparalleled opportunity to study other cultures and history--and living and studying in a foreign country is even better! UWL, through the many programs of the Office of International Education, makes available to you exciting opportunities to see the world beyond the Bluffs. There are many different types of programs, with stays of varying lengths, that make travel and study abroad possible for practically every budget. New scholarships and stipend opportunities make it easier than before! For more information, go to the official Study Abroad website (http://www.uwlax.edu/oie/Study_Abroad/Study_Abroad.htm) of the UWL Office of International Education.
If you need to find out whether a class you want to take abroad will transfer and count for a course taught in the History Department, please check the COURSE EQUIVALENCIES page: http://www.uwlax.edu/oie/Study_Abroad/SAA%20Network/Equivalencies.htm.
Why go to graduate school? How do you pay for it? Where should you go? Should you go right after UWL? Is your GPA high enough to get you into a graduate program? Should you do an M.A. or sign up for a Ph.D.? Students have many questions about the process--and pass on many myths. These include:
- Myth #1: My GPA is too low.
If your overall GPA is at least a 3 or 3.25, and your major GPA is higher than a 3.25, you should not worry about getting into a graduate program. For a more competitive, prominent program you may be too low, but you should be able to make it into another program IF your GRE (Graduate Records Examination) scores are high enough AND if your letters of reference are strong AND if you have a good writing sample. You should be in good shape; if you have doubts, see your advisor.
- Myth #2: My writing skills or reading ability is inadequate.
Practice makes perfect. Keep working! You may be able to prove yourself by enrolling in a terminal, interdisciplinary, Master's program; the idea there would be to create a good writing sample, to outshine other graduate students in the readings discussions, and to grab the attention--and support--of a graduate faculty member who can then write you a strong letter of support. Talk to a faculty advisor if you are concerned. It may add 1 or 2 years to your school experience--but this is a good opportunity to start fresh if your undergrad transcript is less than stellar. Talk to your advisor.
- Myth #3: I don't know anyone who went to graduate school. It's not for people like me.
You do not need to come from a family of college professors, lawyers, or physicians to get into graduate school. GET REAL! If your classroom assignments prompt you to do follow-up readings, if you enjoy reading, research, and critical thinking--graduate school may be just what you need. Look into it! There may be additional resources to provide assistance to women, non-traditional students, veterans, and others. Consult the UWL Office of Financial Aid (http://www.uwlax.edu/finaid/), the Office of Multicultural Student Services (http://george.intra.uwlax.edu/mss/), or the Self-Sufficiency Program (http://www.uwlax.edu/ssp/). If you are a member of a historically under-represented minority (Hispanic/Latino, African-American, Asian-American, or American Indian), you may qualify for assistance with the graduate school application process from organizations such as Project 1000 (http://mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/p1000/whatis.html). LGBT students may be eligible for some programs; see (http://www.finaid.org/otheraid/gay.phtml). Where there's a will, there's a way . . . Visit Peterson's Educational Center for additional links (http://www.petersons.com/)
- Myth #4: Graduate school is expensive; I am in debt for my undergraduate degree and I need to work. I will go to graduate school--later.
WRONG! People RARELY pay for graduate school in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. The biggest expense--generally $300 to $500 per semester--is for books. Taxpayers, undergraduate students, foundations and endowments generally bear the cost of graduate school--upwards of $130,000 for four years' tuition. And remember, you can always defer your undergraduate student loans while you are in graduate school. Graduate students cover their living expenses, fees, books, travel, and insurance usually through four major methods:
- An Assistantship such as graduate assistantships (GA), teaching assistantships (TA), or research assistantships (RA). These cover tuition, health insurance, and a stipend (salary) of $750 to $1,500 PER MONTH. in exchange for you continuing in "good standing" (a good GPA . . . in Graduate School, fyi, a BC is considered equivalent of a "D" as an undergrad) and performing about 15 hours of work per week, which may include recording grades, grading quizzes or exams, proofreading a professor's book or article manuscripts, providing research support such as photocopying, or leading a discussion group for a large lecture class. These are generally awarded during your first 2-3 years in the program.
- A lectureship, also known as an adjunct teaching position, is generally held after the graduate student has completed all of her or his coursework
- A fellowship, often known as "the full-ride," gives a student a generous stipend, research, and travel money. They generally go to individuals with high GPAs and a proven dedication to scholarship.
Other sources of funding include additional employment opportunities in a university, part-time teaching, paid internships, or student loans. Talk to your faculty advisor; ask him or her how they paid for their degrees. You'll be surprised!
Applying to graduate school is a long, expensive, but rewarding experience. Budget time and resources accordingly. Between GRE exams, photocopying, postage, transcripts, and application fees, it is not unusual for a graduate school application to run as high as $120 per school. Many people apply to 3-6 schools. Women, first-generation and non-traditional students, as well as veterans and some members of historically underrepresented minorities may be eligible for programs that provide assistance with this process; contact the UWL Advising Center, the UWL Financial Aid Office, or programs such as Project 1000. This is a privately-funded effort to assist members of under-represented minorities with the Graduate School application process (http://mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/p1000/whatis.html). Without support, applying for 3-6 schools could cost you between $400 to nearly $1,000, all the more reason why you should do your homework. If you are receiving financial aid, you may be eligible for some support; the GRE used to provide waivers to students receiving certain types of assistance. Contact the UWL Financial Aid Office.
Some questions you may want to consider when selecting a Graduate School:
- Is there a specialist in your area of interest, who is willing and able to become your advisor? What is her/his track record with graduate students? How does she/he balance their mentoring with their own research agenda? Will she/he remain there? If she/he leaves, will they take you with them to their new position? Will they allow you to work with someone from another institution? How big will your committee be?
- Does the program offer the degree you want? Is your area of interest a priority for the department? How many people are enrolled in the program? Who graduated from there--and what was the subject of their dissertation?
- Are there specific requirements like foreign or ancient language reading ability that you need to fulfill? How many credits? What's the schedule? When are you expected to complete with coursework? How long will exams be? What mentoring will be provided to you? If you study an obscure language, will they provide FLAS funds for you?
- Who is the graduate advisor? Can she/he recommend some current graduate students with whom you can talk about the program?
- How big is the department endowment? What types of funding opportunities are available? When is the application for funding due? If you don't get funding the first year, what are the chances that you'll receive consideration the second year?
- Has the deadline for application passed yet? Is there a waiting list?
- How much is tuition? Are the graduate students unionized? Do they have health benefits?
- What is the reputation of the program? Do they encourage innovation or are they a traditional program that discourages certain approaches and methodologies? What are their politics? Who should you avoid? What are their expectations of you?
- Can you minor outside of history, in, literature? Women's Studies? Architecture? LGBT Studies? Classics? Philosophy? American Studies? Science? Biology?
- What kind of support will they offer for you to attend conferences, or to go on research trips?
- Does their library collect materials on your area--or will you be expected to apply to an external funding source to travel to conduct your research?
- Is the school located in a community where you can thrive as an individual and find a community of peers?
- Should I go to an Ivy League or a Public School? What are some benefits or drawbacks?
Answering all of these questions is difficult and tedious, but you need to know these things. To begin answering these questions, look up the department's profile in the American Historical Association's Directory of History Departments and Organizations in the United States and Canada, 30th Edition, 2004-2005. It contains information on 818 history programs and 25,000 professional historians. There is a copy in the UWL History Department office. Additionally, consult the web-version (please note it is not as complete as the print version!) at: (http://www.historians.org/online/index.htm). In addition, check out the department's webpage and that of its college or graduate school. You'll find out additional information there. In addition, you should consult any of the following sources:
Generally, the rule is to start as early as possible. Complete a second or third language--even if you think you will only study U.S. history. Continue with the languages you studied in High School--and keep practicing! Study abroad.
You can only do so much preparation; enjoy your college years, but remember to take things seriously. Here are some hints to keep in mind:
- Schedule things around so you can do a semester abroad, an internship, work, study, and engage in some type of service-learning experience.
- Do not do a 5-year undergraduate career if you can take J-term or Summer-term classes. You should think seriously about graduate school during your sophomore and junior years. You should work on getting your GPA to be as high as possible.
- Think strategically about your coursework and extracurricular activities. Which of your term papers will serve as a writing sample? Keep copies of all your work--especially those with a professor's written comments! Did you apply for an undergraduate research grant? Did you publish the paper?
- Have you been working closely with a faculty member who can write you a strong letter of recommendation? Have you done some research looking into summer enrichment and research programs?
- Have you presented any papers at regional conferences? Will you be attending an AHA meeting? Are you active in the local Phi Alpha Theta chapter?
Again, here are some additional hints:
- Keep copies of all your work in the major, especially term paper projects, because these may be your best writing samples.
- Sign up for the GRE ( Graduate Record Exam ) the spring of your Junior year; find out your test score. Retake it in the Fall of your senior year.
- Prepare a curriculum vitae (see above).
- Edit your writing sample. Talk to your advisor.
- Prepare a list of professors who can write you letters of recommendation. These should come from people in your major that are familiar with your best-quality work and, ideally, faculty whose research and/or teaching and/or service in the field of history is held in esteem or is known to colleagues at the institution where you are applying. Ask if they can write you a letter; faculty are busy with service, teaching, and scholarship and may not have time to write you a letter. Have a back-up! Give your recommenders ample time, at least 4-6 weeks, and copies of your statement of purpose, letter of application, transcript(s), curriculum vitae, copies of the exams or papers you wrote in her/his class, along with a stamped, addressed envelope. Did you remember to sign the recommendation form? Remind faculty to send the letter, one week before it is due. If they forget, have a backup; if the application asks for 3 letters, send in 4. It's better to have one-too-many than to be one-short. That may disqualify you.
- Gather information for the application process . . . request information from programs of interest, meet with your advisor to discuss what program best matches your interests. Find someone in that program and ask them questions about it. Do your research!
- Prepare drafts of your statement of purpose early in the spring of your Junior year. Proofread and edit them over the summer. Work with your faculty advisor or advising center staff early in the fall of your senior year. Realize that faculty will review hundreds of applications! Clearly label every section of the application, and make sure that your essays clearly address your interest in scholarly activities. If you have any weaknesses, explain them here. Use clear, concise language; avoiding any clichés or displays of verbose theoretical pyrotechnics. You are applying for graduate school, not to be a Boy Scout or to be All-American. You may mention ideas and thinkers that inform your work, but avoid vague or unnecessary references to items in your c.v. that have no direct relationship to your potential for scholarship (your league championship, for example). Do not grand-stand; leave the coded articulations of political leaning for the graduate student mailroom, lounge, or coffee hour. Above all, follow instructions to the letter. If it says 2-page limit, that means 500 words. Use the word-count function.
- Research financial aid and support. Do the paperwork to obtain student loans, just in case the financial package you are offered does not cover all your expenses. Have a back-up! Check all the forms!
- During the spring semester of your junior year, begin researching possible advisors at the graduate programs where you may be thinking of applying. Begin e-mailing them. Read their work. Do all of the networking that you can. The advisor will keep an eye out for your application materials and help it through committee hurdles and make you aware of any issues. Get a letter of support from them for your application, in which they say they have been in contact with you and that you have been discussing your interests in their program. If they are writing major grants, can they write additional travel or research support into their grant application for you?
For and in-depth consideration of these points, refer to Melanie Gustafson's Becoming a Historian: A Survival Manual (Washington, D.C.: The Committee on Women Historians of the American Historical Association, 2003) available from the AHA online (www.historians.org/online/index.htm), or in the UWL History Department.
Links to other career-related resources
- The American Historical Association, Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct (http://www.historians.org/pubs/online.htm)
- The American Historical Association, "Liberal Learning and the History Major" (http://www.historians.org/pubs/online.htm)
- The American Historical Association, Careers for History Majors-A miniguide from the AHA (http://www.historians.org/pubs/online.htm)
- Project 1000 (http://mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/p1000/whatis.html) A program that assists members of under-represented groups with the Graduate School application process.
Links of interest to Education Majors
The following links provide access to syllabi, course descriptions, lessons, course materials, videos, grants, contests, links and much information of use to teachers of history. Enjoy!
- Info on Plagiarism and Ethics in the Classroom, from the AHA: Plagiarism: Curricular Materials for History Instructors (http://www.historians.org/governance/pd/Curriculum/plagiarism_intro.htm)
- Hints for interviews from the AHA: See this interesting article by John Pyne, "Are You Thinking of a Career in Secondary Schools? A Supervisor’s Perspective on Which Candidate to Hire" (http://www.historians.org/teaching/JPyne%20final.htm)
- Resources for history teachers from the AHA: (http://www.historians.org/teaching/index.htm)
- Resources for history teachers from the OAH (http:///.oah.org/teaching/index.html)
- Resources for teachers from the National Council for the Social Studies (http://www.ncss.org/)
- Resources for teachers from the National History Day Program: (http://www.nationalhistoryday.org/)
- Resources for history teachers from the Society for History Education: (http://www.csulb.edu/~histeach/)
- Resources for teachers from the National Register of Historic Places, "Teaching with Historic Places" Project (http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp)
- Resources for U.S. history teachers from History Matters (the portal for U.S. History instructors) (http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu/).
- Resources from the Library of Congress, includes 10,000,000 primary sources online! (http://www.loc.gov/teachers/)
- Resources from the U.S.A. National Archives and Records Administration (http://www.archives.gov/)
- Resources from the U.K. National Archives (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/)
- Resources from the Smithsonian Institution/Museum of American History, tools for educators (http://americanhistory.si.edu/educators/index.cfm)