Early Cultures: Pre-European Peoples of Wisconsin
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Glossary

Abrader
a tool made of a coarse material such a sandstone that is used to smooth materials such as bone, antler or wood
Image of abraders

Adze
a woodworking tool
Image of an adze or chopper

Anthropologist
a person who studies people and how they live (both past and present people)

Aquatic
growing or living in or around water

Archaeologist
a person who studies past people and how they lived

Artifact
any object made, modified or used by humans

Atlatl
spear-thrower, used with a spear to make the spear travel farther and with more force
Image of a man holding an atlatl

Awl
a tool with a sharp tip used for making holes
Image of a copper awl

Bannerstone
a weight placed on an atlatl
Image of a bannerstone

Catlinite / Pipestone
fine-grained red rock that can be carved
Image of catlinite

Also see Catlinite entry in Native Technologies

Context
the relationship between artifacts and/or where they are found

Culture
a common way of life of a group of people

Earspool
object placed in a hole in a person's earlobes
Image of an Earspool from Nicholls Mound

Flintknapping
the process of making stone tools through percussion, one rock hit against another in a specific and controlled way

Also see Making Stone Tools entry in Native Technologies

Flute
long thin flake removed from the base of a projectile point
Image of a Flute

Graver
a triangular shaped tool used for engraving or incising
Image of a graver

Hammerstone
a stone used for battering or pecking or for making stone tools
Image of a core and hammerstone
A stone used for battering or pecking or for making stone tools, as seen in this photo showing a hammerstone on the left and a core on the right.

Hierarchical Society
a culture whose people are organized into ranks

Historian
a person who studies the past through researching and creating written documents

Lifeway
a way of living shared by a group of people

Marine
from the ocean, not freshwater lakes or rivers

Mano
a hand sized rock used with a metate for grinding food
Image of corn and grinding stone

Metate
a large flat rock used as a grinding surface with a mano
Image of corn and grinding stone

Modified Flake
flake of stone that has been modified to be used as a tool
Image of a Modified Flake

Palisade
a high post fence or stockade
Image of a palisade

Platform Mound
a large mound of earth with a flat top
Image of a platform mound

Postmold
stain left in the soil where posts from a structure have decomposed
Image of a Postmold

Projectile Point
a man made pointed stone tool used as a tip on spears or arrows
Image of projectile points

Scapula
a triangular shaped bone in the shoulder of an animal
Image of scapulas

Scraper
a tool used for scraping items such as hides
Image of scrapers

Stockade
enclosure of posts used for fortification or to control entry
Image of a stockade

Temper
material (sand, small stones or ground up clamshell) which is added to clay to help prevent shrinkage and cracking when the clay is dried or fired


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Examples of Catlinite
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