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BIOLOGY (BIO) 

BIO 501/P-T 521             7 Cr.
H-P 421/PAS 621             6 Cr.
Human Gross Anatomy

A comprehensive consideration of the human anatomy including both neuro-musculoskeletal components and internal organ systems. Systems included are musculoskeletal, neurological, urogenital, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and cardio-pulmonary. The course includes the complete regional dissection of the human cadaver. Biomechanical function, topographic and radiographic correlations, and clinical applications are emphasized. Provides an in-depth understanding of the gross anatomy of the human body through lecture, audiovisual, computer and gross cadaver dissection. Prerequisite: admission to Biology MS-Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program or permission of the biology graduate program director. (Cross-listed with P-T 521/721, PAS 621, and H-P 421; may only earn credit in one course BIO 501, PAS 621, H-P 421 or P-T 521/721.) Offered Summer only.  

BIO       404/504             Cr. 3
Plant Taxonomy

Collection, identification, classification, and evolution of the vascular plants with emphasis on local flora. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO       405/505             Cr. 2
Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants

Identification and collection of vascular plants of aquatic and marsh habitats with emphasis on adaptive morphology and ecology of local species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204. Offered Sem. I, every other year. 

BIO       406/506             Cr. 4
Parasitology

A survey of the major groups of animal parasites with regard to their taxonomy, morphology, life histories, host-parasite relationships, and economic importance.  Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303. Offered Sem. I.

BIO       408/508             Cr. 4
Developmental Biology

A study of primarily animal embryonic development including fertilization, cleavage, cell determination, gastrulation, organ-system development, pattern formation and cell differentiation. Genetic control of developmental processes using various vertebrate and invertebrate models will be integrated and emphasized. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303 and BIO 306 or MIC 416. BIO 315 recommended. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       309/509             Cr. 3
Entomology

Morphology, physiology, classification, life histories, distribution, and economic importance of insects. Individual collections of local insects are required. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210. Offered occasionally. 

BIO       412/512             Cr. 4
Mycology

A survey of all the major groups of fungi of the fungal kingdom (and relatives) in terms of systematics, anatomy, morphology, ecology, physiology, genetics, evolutionary relationships, and human and plant pathology. Laboratory includes microscopic and macroscopic study of the fungi, as well as making a collection of cultures and of fungal reproductive structures (including mushrooms) from selected groups. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or MIC 230. Both are strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       413/513             Cr. 3
Medical Mycology

A study of the increasing number of medically important fungi, including the yeasts, molds, other fungi, and actinomycetes that are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of these pathogenic fungi. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: MIC 230 or BIO 412/512. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       414/514             Cr. 3
Freshwater Invertebrate Zoology

Introduces the ecology and taxonomy of the metazoan, non-parasitic freshwater invertebrates. An extensive course designed to provide a foundation for taxonomic knowledge, and basic understanding of the biology and ecology of freshwater invertebrates for advanced students in aquatic and environmental sciences. Lectures will focus on ecology; labs on taxonomy and quan skills. A student reference collection and weekend field trips will be required. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 341. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       417/517             Cr. 4
Animal Physiology

Consideration of how vertebrates solve physiological problems. Material covered includes: movement, information processing and sensory physiology, respiration, circulation of nutrients and oxygen, water and solute metabolism, thermoregulation, and chemical coordination. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or BIO 312-313. Offered occasionally. 

BIO       419/519             Cr. 3
Quantitative Methods in Ecology

An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or 341. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       422/522             Cr. 3
Ichthyology

A study of the taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of fish, with emphasis on the fresh water fishes. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303. Offered Sem. I. Alternate years.

BIO       423/523             Cr. 3
Fisheries Management

An introduction to the science of managing fish populations, fish communities, and anthropogenic impacts. The application and rationale of methods of manipulating fish populations will be investigated. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or 341. BIO 422/522 is strongly recommended. Offered occasionally. 

BIO       424/524   Cr. 3
Endocrinology

A study of the anatomy and physiology of the glands comprising the endocrine system. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or 312-313 or ESS 205-206. 

BIO       428/528             Cr. 3
Animal Metabolism, Nutrition and Disease

An in-depth coverage of animal digestion, absorption and metabolism (biochemical pathways) of key nutrients, including protein, lipids, carbohydrates and essential vitamins and minerals. There will also be substantial consideration of energy balance, nutrient partitioning, life span dietary recommendations for humans, food nutrient content and the role of nutrient metabolism in disease. Prerequisite: BIO 313 or approval of instructor. 

BIO       429/529             Cr. 3
Evolution

Consideration of the principles and the record of organic evolution of plants and animals. Lect. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered   Sem. I. 

BIO       432/532             Cr. 2
Biology of Cancer

A survey of the current knowledge of cancer biology. The course will include lectures, readings and discussions on a wide range of cancer topics, including: characteristics of cancer cells, carcinogenesis, cancer genes, tumor classification, invasion, metastasis, impact of cancer on body functions, epidemiology, inheritance, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or 313, and BIO 306 or MIC 416. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       433/533             Cr. 3
Radiation Biology

Applications and effects of nuclear radiation on biological systems. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, one additional course in biology, and CHM 103. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       435/535             Cr. 3
Molecular Biology

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. The course will focus on the molecular aspects controlling biological processes. The impact of recombinant DNA technology on biotechnology and medicine will also be examined. Lect. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 306 and 315, or MIC 416/516 and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry strongly recommended. BIO 436/536 is an optional laboratory which can be taken concurrently Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       436/536             Cr. 1
Molecular Biology Laboratory

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Laboratory emphasis is on recombinant DNA technology, current techniques used to express recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells, computer based DNA analysis, macromolecular modeling using computers, and quantitative assay techniques. Lab. 3. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 435/535. Prerequisite: To be taken concurrently with BIO 435/535. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       437/537             Cr. 3
Plant Growth and Development

Discussion of experiments and analysis of research data obtained from the living plant. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or equivalent or consent of instructor. 

BIO       439/539             Cr. 3
Plant Anatomy

A detailed examination of plant structure and development as revealed with the light and electron microscopes. Primarily seed plants will be examined. Structure and development will be studied as a means by which plants cope with their ecology, evolution and function. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or an equivalent general botany course. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO/MIC  440/540             Cr. 2
Bioinformatics

In this course, students will use computers to study and compare the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or the amino acids in a protein. Computers also are used to examine the three dimensional structure of protein.  Being able to manipulate and study this information is the basis for the current revolution in biotechnology. Topics include evolution, taxonomy, genomics and understanding disease. This course provides students an opportunity to explore the relationships between biology, microbiology, chemistry and computer science. Lect. 2, Lab 1. Prerequisite: BIO 306 or MIC 230 (BIO 435 or MIC 416 recommended). Half-semester course. Cross-listed with MIC 440/540; may only earn credit in MIC or BIO. Offered Sem. II and J-Term. 

BIO/MIC  442/542             Cr. 3
Plant Microbe Interactions

This course will explore in-depth various ways that plants interact with microbes in the environment, at the macroscopic, cellular, and molecular levels. Case studies will include both parasitic and mutualistic (symbiotic) interactions. Microbes include fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. Includes plant pathology and studies of the beneficial relationships between plants and microbes. Inquiry-based labs are integrated into the lecture and discussion sessions. Lect. 2, Lab 2.  Prerequisite: BIO 204, MIC 230 and BIO 306 or MIC 416. Cross-listed with MIC 442/542; may only earn credit in BIO or MIC. Offered Sem. II 

BIO       443/543             Cr. 3
Molecular Mechanism of Disease and Drug Action

A survey of the leading non-infectious and non-cancerous diseases in the industrialized world. This course will explore the molecular mechanisms of disease, clinical symptomology, and pharmacological treatment. Students will be expected to conduct thorough research on a given disease and present their results in a poster session. Prerequisite: BIO 306, 313 and CHM 300 or 304. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       447/547             Cr. 3
Standard Methods and Quality Assurance of Water Analyses

This course will instruct students on the use of standard methods for analyses of selected biological, chemical, and physical constituents commonly included in water quality analyses. Quality assurance procedures, including Good Laboratory Practice Standards (GLPS) will be integrated into all activities. Materials covered include: principles of methods used; evaluation of precision, bias, and contamination; proper reporting and interpretation of results; and environmental sources and significance of constituents analyzed. Lect. 1, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or 210 or 303, MIC 230 and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 recommended. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       448/548             Cr. 4
Aquatic Toxicology

A study of the lethal and sub lethal effects of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and environmental legislation. Procedures for toxicity evaluation, experimental design and statistical analysis will be emphasized in the laboratory. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: four semesters of college biology, BIO 341 recommended, and three semesters of college chemistry. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO       449/549             Cr. 3
Microtechnique and Electron Microscopy

Principles and techniques of specimen preparation and microscopy. Students develop proficiency in light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope operation and learn how to prepare biological specimens for viewing and resulting photographs for presentation. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: junior standing and BIO 315 or MIC 361. Offered Sem. I, alternate years. 

BIO       460/560             Cr. 1-3
Symposium in Biology

Studies in biology of interest to specific groups. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Prerequisite: four semesters of biology. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 6. Variable offerings ? check registration schedules. 

BIO       463/563             Cr. 3
Aquatic Animal Health

The study of pathogens of aquatic animals, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, amphibians, waterfowl and mammals. Sections on nutrition and toxicology are included. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, 210 or 303, and CHM 103; MIC 230 strongly recommended. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO       464/564             Cr. 3
Stream and Watershed Ecology

Introduces key concepts and theory pertinent to understanding and managing fluvial ecosystems (rivers and streams) and their watersheds. The course will emphasize rivers as large-scale physical and biological systems. Course work includes a comparative case study of distinctive types of temperate, tropical, and polar rivers. Prerequisite: BIO 341 or BIO 307. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       465/565             Cr. 4
Neurophysiology

An examination of the workings of the brain beginning at the cellular level and working up to neuronal systems. Inquiry-based laboratory experiments will provide a foundation for discussion of neural development, the biological basis of learning and memory, and neurobiological bases of brain disease and dysfunction. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 312. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO       466/566             Cr. 3
Human Genetics

A study of the basic principles of heredity in humans. Focus will be on modern molecular techniques used in isolating human disease genes and modes of inheritance of human traits and disorders. Ethical issues in human genetics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       490/590             Cr. 1-3
Current Topics in Biology Education

Biological researchers produce new discoveries almost daily. The purpose of this course is to train K-12 pre-service and in-service teachers in the current technologies and theories used in biology and to demonstrate the current approaches to teaching these materials. Repeatable for credit under different topics; not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Departmental option for Pass/Fail grading. 

BIO       701 Cr. 4
Communication in the Biological Sciences

This course covers in detail the preparation and submission of scientific manuscripts for publication and the presentation of papers at scientific conferences. Topics covered include preparation of manuscript sections, figures, and tables; writing with clarity, precision, and word economy; dealing with journal editors and reviewers; reviewing and editing of manuscripts; preparation of proposals for funding; presentation of oral (platform) and poster papers at scientific conferences; preparation of visual aids; risk communication; serving on expert panels; serving as an expert witness; and communicating with the public, the press, lawyers, and politicians. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO       711 Cr. 2
Aquatic Contaminants

A study of the sources, chemistry, transformations, and transport of contemporary chemical and physical aquatic contaminants. Aspects of environmental law including the court system, major legislation, and discharge permits will also be covered. Prerequisite: one semester of limnology. Offered occasionally. 

BIO       713 Cr. 2
Physiology of Drug Action

A study of the general principles of pharmaco-dynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs in human systems with emphasis on the physiological responses at the cellular and organ levels. Prerequisite: BIO 718 or concurrent enrollment. 

BIO       714 Cr. 3
Advanced Genetics

The application of molecular-genetic analysis to problems in modern biology. The course will cover the fundamentals of genetic analysis in both procaryotic and eucaryotic systems. Assigned readings from current literature will be discussed and evaluated. A variety of topic areas will be considered including ecology, biotechnology, bioremediation, food science, medicine and basic research. Prerequisite: a previous course in genetics, microbial genetics or molecular biology. Offered Sem. II, alternate years. 

BIO       715 Cr. 3
Pathophysiology I

A study of diseases of the human central nervous system, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and renal systems with an emphasis on pathophysiology, treatment, and interaction with other organ systems. Enrollment is limited to students in the Biology MS ? Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program. Prerequisite: BIO 718, 719. 

BIO       716 Cr. 3
Current Topics in Physiology

Consideration of selected topics in physiology such as advanced cellular physiology, membrane and endocrinological physiology, and systemic physiology. Assigned readings will be largely from current literature. 

BIO       717 Cr. 3
Pathophysiology II

A study of diseases of the human hepatic, gastrointestinal, immune, neuromuscular, and endocrine systems with an emphasis on pathophysiology, treatment, and interaction with other organ systems. Enrollment is limited to students in the Biology MS ? Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program. Prerequisite: BIO 718, 719. 

BIO       718 Cr. 4
Advanced Human Physiology I

An in-depth study of the physiology (including associated anatomic structures) of human organ systems. Covers the cell, and the nervous, muscular and respiratory systems. Prerequisite: B. S. degree in biology or allied health related field. Offered Sem. I. 

BIO       719 Cr. 4
Advanced Human Physiology II

An in-depth study of the physiology (including associated anatomic structures) of human organ systems. Covers the circulation, endocrine, digestive and excretory systems, and temperature regulation. Prerequisite: BIO 718. Offered Sem. II. 

BIO/MIC    721 Cr. 1-2
Directed Studies

Directed readings or presentation of material not available in formal departmental courses. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 4 between BIO and MIC. 

BIO       725 Cr. 1-3
Forum in Biology

An in-depth examination of selected topics in biology through critical analysis of the primary literature. Participants will be required to read and discuss the experimental design, methods, results and major conclusions of scientific research. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 6. Variable offerings ? check registration schedules. 

BIO       726 Cr. 1-3
Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Biology

Development of accessory research skills in specialized areas of biology. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 6. Variable offerings ? check registration schedules. 

BIO/MIC    751 Cr. 1
Graduate Seminar

Reading, oral reports, and discussion on selected topics in biology. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 2. 

BIO       761 Cr. 2 
Research and Seminar in Biology

Principles of research in biology. As part of the requirements for this course and for the degree, each student must complete an acceptable seminar paper unless pursuing Plan A and writing a master?s thesis. 

BIO       779 Cr. 1-2
Biology Laboratory Assistant

Allows graduate students to gain experience in assisting with preparation and teaching 300 and 400 level laboratory-based courses in conjunction with the regular instructor. Students will be expected to assist in preparation of course materials, demonstrate proper techniques, and evaluate students? performance. Lect. 6, Lab 2. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Not applicable to assisting in 100 or 200 level courses.

BIO       799 Cr. 1-9
Research: Master?s Thesis

Independent research on a problem selected for a thesis under the direction of an assigned staff member. For students following Plan A. Repeatable for credit ? maximum 15. Maximum of six credits applicable to the M.S. ? biology degree.

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