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BIOLOGY/ MICROBIOLOGY (BIO)

BIO 501 Cr. 5
Human Anatomy
Provides an in-depth understanding of the gross anatomy of the human body through lecture, audiovisual, computer and gross cadaver dissection. The whole body will be covered with spinal emphasis on the musculoskeletal system. Systems included are musculoskeletal, neurological, urogenital, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and cardiopulmonary. Prerequisite: admission to the Biology MS -- Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program or permission of the biology graduate program director. (Cross-listed with P-T 521; may only earn credit in BIO or P-T.)
BIO 404/504 Cr. 3
Plant Taxonomy
Collection, identification, classification, and evolution of the vascular plants with emphasis on local flora. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.
BIO 405/505 Cr. 2
Aquatic Vascular Plants
Identification and collection of vascular plants of aquatic and marsh habitats with emphasis on adaptive morphology and ecology of local species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204.
BIO 406/506 Cr. 4
Parasitology
A survey of the major groups of animal parasites with regard to their taxonomy, morphology, life histories, host-parasite relationships, and economic importance. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303.
BIO 309/509 Cr. 3
Entomology
Morphology, physiology, classification, life histories, distribution, and economic importance of insects. Individual collections of local insects are required. Lect 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 310/510 Cr. 4
Invertebrate Zoology
A comprehensive consideration of animals from the protozoan level through the echinoderms. The physiology and life cycles are stressed. Classification and evaluating relationships are examined in detail. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 412/512 Cr. 4
Mycology
A survey of all the major groups of fungi of the fungal kingdom (and relatives) in terms of systematics, anatomy, morphology, ecology, physiology, genetics, evoluntionary relationships, and human and plant pathology. Laboratory includes microscopic and macroscopic study of the fungi, as well as making a collection of cultures and of fungal reproductive structures (including mushrooms) from selected groups. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or 230. Both are strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 413/513 Cr. 3
Medical Mycology
A study of the yeasts, molds, and actinomycetes that are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 230 or 412/512. Not applicable to biology major; may be applied only to microbiology major and/or degree. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 414/514 Cr. 3
Freshwater Invertebrate Zoology
Introduces the ecology and taxonomy of the metazoan, non-parasitic freshwater invertebrates. An extensive course designed to provide a foundation for taxonomic knowledge, and basic understanding of the biology and ecology of freshwater invertebrates for advanced students in aquatic and environmental sciences. Lectures will focus on ecology; labs on taxonomy and quanititative skills. A student reference collection and field trips will be required. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 210 or 341. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 416/516 Cr. 4
Microbial Genetics
An in-depth study of the bacterial and bacteriophage genome including DNA mutation and repair, mechanisms of genetic exchange in procaryotes, bacterial plasmids, transposition, gene mapping, recombinant DNA technology, and applications of genetic modifications in micro-organisms. Laboratory emphasis is on the techniques used in bacterial mutagenesis, genetic exchange, gene mapping, and gene cloning. Lect. 2, Lab. 6. Prerequisites: BIO 230 and four semesters of college chemistry including organic. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 417/517 Cr. 4
Animal Physiology
Consideration of how vertebrates solve physiological problems. Material covered includes: movement, information processing and sensory physiology, respiration, circulation of nutrients and oxygen, water and solute metabolism, thermoregulation, and chemical coordination. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 303 or BIO 312-313. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 419/519 Cr. 2
Quantitative Methods in Ecology
An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 307 or 341. Offered Semester I.
BIO 420/520 Cr. 3
Introductory Virology
An introduction into the world of viruses. Special emphasis is placed on structure, replication cycles in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and specific viral families of medical importance. Prerequisites: BIO 230 and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 422/522 Cr. 3
Ichthyology
A study of the taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of fish, with emphasis on the fresh water fishes. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303.
BIO 423/523 Cr. 3
Fisheries Management
An introduction to the science of managing fish populations, fish communities, and anthropogenic impacts. The application and rationale of methods of manipulating fish populations will be investigated. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 307 or 341. BIO 422/522 is strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.
BIO 424/524 Cr. 3
Endocrinology
A study of the anatomy and physiology of the glands comprising the endocrine system. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or 312-313 or ESS 205-206. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 425/525 Cr. 4
Bacterial Physiology
An in-depth study of bacterial structure and function, catabolic and anabolic pathways, regulation, and macromolecular synthesis. Laboratory emphasis is on current techniques used to examine bacterial structure and metabolism such as electron microscopy, macromolecular separations and quantification, use of radioisotopic tracers, and quantification of enzyme activity. Lect. 2., Lab 6. Prerequisites: BIO 230, MTH 177 or 205, and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry is strongly recommended. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 426/526 Cr. 4
Food Microbiology
A study of environmental factors affecting the growth, activity, and destruction of micro-organisms in food; principles of food spoilage; preservation of foods, including basic methods and their application to foods; food-borne intoxications and infections; indicator organisms; sanitation and microbiological standards in foods. Laboratory instruction includes quality control methods, sampling methods, techniques to identify important microorganisms in foods, and data interpretation and analysis. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 230. BIO 412/512 is highly recommended. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 427/527 Cr. 3
Industrial and Fermentation Microbiology
A study of microbiology and biochemistry of food fermentations; bioconversions; production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids and organic acids. Starter culture systems will be examined. Prerequisite: BIO 230. BIO 426/526 is highly recommended. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 428/528 Cr. 3
Animal Metabolism, Nutrition and Disease
An in-depth coverage of animal digestion, absorption and metabolism (biochemical pathways) of key nutrients, including protein, lipids, carbohydrates and essential vitamins and minerals. There will also be substantial consideration of energy balance, nutrient partitioning, life span dietary recommendations for humans, food nutrient content and the role of nutrient metabolism in disease. Prerequisite: BIO 313 or approval of instructor.
BIO 429/529 Cr. 3
Evolution
Consideration of the principles and the record of organic evolution of plants and animals. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 432/532 Cr. 2
Biology of Cancer
A survey of the current knowledge of cancer biology. The course will include lectures, readings and discussions on a wide range of cancer topics, including: characteristics of cancer cells, carcinogenesis, cancer genes, tumor classification, invasion, metastasis, impact of cancer on body functions, epidemiology, inheritance, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Prerequisites: BIO 303 or 306 and 313 or 416. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 433/533 Cr. 3
Radiation Biology
Applications and effects of nuclear radiation on biological systems. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 101, one additional course in biology, and two semesters of chemistry. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 434/534 Cr. 3
Aquatic Microbial Ecology
An ecological study of bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae of aquatic ecosystems. Topics include microbial strategies for survival under various environmental conditions, the role of micro-organisms in biogeochemical cycling of elements, interactions of microorganisms with other aquatic biota, the role of microorganisms in pollution problems, and applications of microbial ecology to biotechnology. Laboratory emphasis is on experimental design and sampling techniques, quantification of microbial biomass, and measurement of microbial activities in aquatic habitats. One weekend field trip required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 230, three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 is strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.
BIO 435/535 Cr. 3
Molecular Biology
A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. The course will focus on the molecular aspects controlling biological processes.The impact of recombinant DNA technology on biotechnology and medicine will also be examined. Lect. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 306 and 315, or BIO 416/516 and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry strongly recommended. BIO 436/536 is an optional laboratory which can be taken concurrently Offered Sem. I.
BIO 436/536 Cr. 1
Molecular Biology Laboratory
A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Laboratory emphasis is on recombinant DNA technology, current techniques used to express recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells, computer based DNA analysis, macromolecular modeling using computers, and quantitative assay techniques. Lab. 3. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 435/535. To be taken concurrently with BIO 435/535. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 437/537 Cr. 3
Plant Growth and Development
Discussion of experiments and analysis of research data obtained from the living plant. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or equivalent. Variable offering pattern.
BIO 438/538 Cr. 3
Physics and Chemistry of Surface and Ground Water
A study of the optical, thermal and hydro-mechanics of surface water and the movement of ground water in confined and unconfined aquifers. The occurrence and cycling of major and minor elements found in surface and ground water. Prerequisites: two semesters of chemistry and BIO 341. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.
BIO 439/539 Cr. 3
Plant Anatomy
A detailed examination of plant structure and development as revealed with the light and electron microscopes. Primarily seed plants will be examined. Structure and development will be studied as a means by which plants cope with their ecology, evolution and function. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or an equivalent general botany course. Offered Sem II, alternate years.
BIO 447/547 Cr. 3
Standard Methods and Quality Assurance of Water Analyses
This course will instruct students on the use of standard methods for analyses of selected biological, chemical, and physical constituents commonly included in water quality analyses. Quality assurance procedures, including Good Laboratory Practice Standards (GLPS) will be integrated into all activities. Materials covered include: principles of methods used; evaluation of precision, bias, and contamination; proper reporting and interpretation of results; and environmental sources and significance of constituents analyzed. Lect. 1, Lab 4. Prerequisites: BIO 204 or 210 or 303, BIO 230 and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 is recommended. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 448/548 Cr. 4
Aquatic Toxicology
A study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and environmental legislation. Proce-dures for toxicity evaluation, experimental design and statistical analysis will be emphasized in the laboratory. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: four semesters of college biology, BIO 341 recommended, and three semesters of college chemistry. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 449/549 Cr. 3
Microtechnique and Electron Microscopy
Principles and techniques of specimen preparation and microscopy. Students develop proficiency in light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope operation and learn how to prepare biological specimens for viewing and resulting photographs for presentation. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: junior standing and BIO 315 or 361. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.
BIO 460/560 Cr. 1-3
Symposium in Biology
Studies in biology of interest to specific groups. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Prerequisite: Four semesters of biology. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 6. Variable offerings -- check registration schedules.
BIO 701 Cr. 4
Communication in the Biological Sciences
This course covers in detail the preparation and submission of scientific manuscripts for publication and the presentation of papers at scientific conferences. Topics covered include preparation of manuscript sections, figures, and tables; writing with clarity, precision, and word economy; dealing with journal editors and reviewers; reviewing and editing of manuscripts; preparation of proposals for funding; presentation of oral (platform) and poster papers at scientific conferences; preparation of visual aids; risk communication; serving on expert panels; serving as an expert witness; and communicating with the public, the press, lawyers, and politicians. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.
BIO 711 Cr. 2
Aquatic Contaminants
A study of the sources, chemistry, transformations, and transport of contemporary chemical and physical aquatic contaminants. Aspects of environmental law including the court system, major legislation, and discharge permits will also be covered. Prerequisite: one semester of limnology. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.
BIO 713 Cr. 2
Physiology of Drug Action
A study of the general principles of pharmaco-dynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs in human systems with emphasis on the physiological responses at the cellular and organ levels. Prerequisite: BIO 718 or concurrent enrollment.
BIO 714 Cr. 3
Advanced Genetics
The application of molecular-genetic analysis to problems in modern biology. The course will cover the fundamentals of genetic analysis in both procaryotic and eucaryotic systems. Assigned readings from current literature will be discussed and evaluated. A variety of topic areas will be considered including ecology, biotechnology, bioremediation, food science, medicine and basic research. Prerequisites: a previous course in genetics, microbial genetics or molecular biology. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.
BIO 715 Cr. 3
Pathophysiology I
A study of diseases of the human central nervous system, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and renal systems with an emphasis on pathophysiology, treatment, and interaction with other organ systems. Enrollment is limited to students in the Biology MS -- Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program. Prerequisite: BIO 718, 719.
BIO 716 Cr. 3
Current Topics in Physiology
Consideration of selected topics in physiology such as advanced cellular physiology, membrane and endocrinological physiology, and systemic physiology. Assigned readings will be largely from current literature.
BIO 717 Cr. 3
Pathophysiology II
A study of diseases of the human hepatic, gastrointestinal, immune, neuromuscular, and endocrine systems with an emphasis on pathophysiology, treatment, and interaction with other organ systems. Enrollment is limited to students in the Biology MS -- Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) program. Prerequisite: BIO 718, 719.
BIO 718 Cr. 4
Advanced Human Physiology I
An in-depth study of the physiology (including associated anatomic structures) of human organ systems. Covers the cell, and the nervous, muscular and respiratory systems. Prerequisite: B. S. degree in biology or allied health related field. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 719 Cr. 4
Advanced Human Physiology II
An in-depth study of the physiology (including associated anatomic structures) of human organ systems. Covers the circulation, endocrine, digestive and excretory systems, and temperature regulation. Prerequisite: BIO 718. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 721 Cr. 1-2
Directed Studies
Directed readings or presentation of material not available in formal departmental courses. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 4.
BIO 725 Cr. 1-3
Forum in Biology
An in-depth examination of selected topics in biology through critical analysis of the primary literature. Participants will be required to read and discuss the experimental design, methods, results and major conclusions of scientific research. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 6. Variable offerings -- check registration schedules.
BIO 726 Cr. 1-3
Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Biology
Development of accessory research skills in specialized areas of biology. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 6. Variable offerings -- check registration schedules.
BIO 751 Cr. 1
Graduate Seminar
Reading, oral reports, and discussion on selected topics in biology. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 2.
BIO 752 Cr. 2
Clinical Laboratory Management
Advanced principles, theories, and techniques of supervisory skills, scheduling, ordering, and personnel management of all aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. In addition, compliance with federal (i.e., OSHA, CLIA 1988, CAP, etc.) and state regulations, including proficiency testing, will be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program. Offered Sem. I.
BIO 753 Cr. 2
Clinical Epidemiology of Infectious Disease
An understanding of the clinical epidemiology of infectious diseases forms the basis for approaches to control and prevention in the health care setting. Course content will be geared to the health care professional, especially the clinical microbiologist. The course is designed to provide an introduction to current clinical epidemiology and control measures of clinically-relevant bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections common to, or of potential importance in the United States. Discussion will focus heavily on historical background, descriptive epidemiology, mechanisms and routes of infection, control and prevention, and other relevant problems. Prerequisite: MTH 205 or equivalent. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 754 Cr. 2
Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenicity
The study of mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity including both overt microbial factors and complex interactions with the host that produce symptoms of disease. The cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic bases for modern understanding of microbial disease will be included. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 755 Cr. 2
Advanced Immunology
An in-depth study of advanced topics in immunology, primarily focusing on the genetics, mechanisms, and regulation of the immune system. Aspects of the immune response in a variety of disease conditions (infectious and non-infectious) will be discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 361 or equivlent. Offered Sem. II.
BIO 761 Cr. 2
Research and Seminar in Biology
Principles of research in biology. As part of the requirements for this course and for the degree, each student must complete an acceptable seminar paper unless pursuing Plan A and writing a master's thesis.
BIO 771 Cr. 4
Clinical Microbiology I
Clinical preceptorship covering advanced principles, theories, and techniques of diagnostic microbiology in a clinical laboratory with special emphasis on isolation, cultivation and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Trouble-shooting, quality control, laboratory management, super-visory skills and special topics will be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 772 Cr. 1
Clinical Laboratory Science
Clinical preceptorship covering the principles, theories and techniques of clinical hematology, blood banking, and clinical chemistry. Trouble-shooting, quality control, laboratory management, supervisory skills and special topics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance in M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 773 Cr. 1
Clinical Virology I
Clinical preceptorship covering advanced principles, theories, and techniques of diagnostic virology with special emphasis on viral recovery, cultivation, and identification by standard or serological methods. Trouble-shooting, quality control, laboratory management, supervisory skills and special topics will be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 774 Cr. 1
Clinical Mycology I
Clinical preceptorship covering advanced principles, theories, and techniques of diagnostic mycology and mycobacteriology with special emphasis on isolation, cultivation, and identification of pathogenic fungi and mycobacteria. Trouble-shooting, quality control, laboratory management, supervisory skills and special topics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 775 Cr. 1
Clinical Parasitology
Clinical preceptorship covering advanced principles, theories, and techniques of diagnostic parasitology with special emphasis on isolation and identification of protozoan and helminthic parasites. Trouble-shooting, quality control, laboratory management, supervisory skills, and special topics will be discussed. Prerequisites: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 781 Cr. 3
Clinical Immunology I
Clinical preceptorship covering the advanced principles, theories, and techniques of infectious disease serology in a clinical reference laboratory. Emphasis on comparisons of assays with particular attention to their sensitivities and specificities for antibodies to multiple infectious agents. Trouble-shooting, supervisory skills and special topics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M. S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 782 Cr. 1
Clinical Immunology II
Clinical preceptorship covering advanced principles, theories, and techniques for the differential diagnosis of autoimmune disease and the detection of immunoglobulin-related malignancies, such as multiple myeloma. Trouble-shooting, supervisory skills and special topics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program.
BIO 791 Cr. 3
Clinical Microbiology II
Advanced principles, theories, and techniques of diagnostic microbiology not routinely observed in hospital microbiology laboratories, but performed in a specialized public health reference laboratory (WI State Laboratory of Hygiene). Techniques include unusual organism culture, microbial toxin detection and identification, antimicrobial testing for fungi and mycobacteria, water testing, and serology for various micro-organisms or their by-products. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Micro-biology Program. Offered Summer Session.
BIO 792 Cr. 1
Clinical Instrumentation I
Principles, theories, and techniques associated with instruments not commonly found in a hospital clinical laboratory, but rather a specialized public health reference laboratory (WI State Laboratory of Hygiene). Trouble shooting, supervisory skills, and special topics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: acceptance into M.S. Biology: Clinical Microbiology Program. Offered Summer Session.
BIO 799 Cr. 1-9
Research: Master's Thesis
Independent research on a problem selected for a thesis under the direction of an assigned staff member. For students following Plan A. Repeatable for credit -- maximum 15. Maximum of six credits applicable to the M.S. -- Biology degree.


This catalog is a record of graduate programs, courses, policies, staff and facilities as of April 1, 1997. The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse reserves the right to change any of the information in this catalog at any time and without giving prior notice. This catalog does not establish a contractual relationship. For a further explanation of your rights and responsibilities as a student please see the Welcome and Note to Students section.


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