ASTRONOMY (AST)

The best preparation for prospective astronomers is a strong physics background. Consequently an astronomy major/minor is not offered, but rather a physics major with astronomy emphasis which includes both astronomy courses and physics courses.

**Physics Department Honors Program with Astronomy Emphasis Requirements
**I. Admission

A. Junior standing

B. 15 credits in physics or astronomy including one 300-level course

C. 3.25 cumulative grade point average in physics or astronomy courses and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average

D. Recommended by two faculty members in Physics Department

II. Program

A. Completion of a regular major program in physics with astronomy emphasis

B. AST 497: Physics and Astronomy Seminar, 1 cr.

C. AST 498: Physics and Astronomy Research, 3 cr.

III. Evaluation

A. A cumulative 3.50 grade point average in physics and astronomy at the time of graduation and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average

B. Distinguished performance on a project developed in AST 498

C. Presentation of the project developed in AST 498 to a seminar of faculty and students

IV. Methods of Implementation

A. Admission

1. Announcement of program in sophomore-level physics and astronomy classes

2. Application form

a. Academic record

b. Reasons for wishing to participate

c. Signatures of two faculty members in physics

B. Program

1. AST 497: Physics and Astronomy Seminar will be offered each semester

2. AST 498: Physics and Astronomy Research will be offered each semester

V. Recognition

A. Honors certificate

B. Notation on permanent academic record

All astronomy emphasis majors and minors are strongly encouraged to register for one credit of AST 497 every semester.

**Physics Major with Astronomy Emphasis
**(Liberal Studies, Business, Science and Allied Health) - 39 credits, including: AST 155, 156, 362, 363, 466; PHY 103 or 203, 104 or 204, 250, 321, 332, 343, 302, 303 or 401.

**Physics Minor
**(Liberal Studies, Business, Science and Allied Health) - 24 credits, including 13 credits of the following core courses: PHY 103 or 203, 104 or 204, 250, 311 and at least 11 credits from electives numbered higher than PHY 250 or from any AST course. Students also have the option of concentrating their studies in computational physics or optics by choosing their electives appropriately. (This minor is also especially suitable for chemistry, computer science and mathematics students.)

**Physics Minor with Astronomy Emphasis
**24 credits, including: AST 155, 156; PHY 103 or 203, 104 or 204, 250, and electives from any AST courses. (This minor is also especially suitable for chemistry, computer science and mathematics students.)

**Secondary General Science Major (Broadfield )
**(Middle/Secondary Education) - See description of this broadfield major on p. 82. Electives may include any AST course or CHM 309 or MTH 461 or courses numbered higher than PHY 204.

**Note:
**The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Administrative Code requires that certifiable physics majors must have eight semester hours credit of science course work other than physics, plus GEO 200 and C-I 381.

+ above a course number indicates a General Education course.

**+
PHY 103 Cr. 4
Fundamental Physics I
**A broad introduction to the study of physics using the techniques of algebra. Topics covered are vectors, kinematics, Newton's laws of motion, circular motion, work, energy, momentum, rigid body motion, angular momentum, torque, oscillatory motion, gravitation, fluid mechanics, waves, resonances, temperature, ideal gases, heat, first and second laws of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, heat engines and entropy. Additional topics will be selected from chaos, black holes, solar system mechanics, computational physics, rocket motion and wherever possible applications to other fields of science such as chemistry, biology, geology, medicine and engineering will be discussed. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. MTH 150 recommended. (Students familiar with calculus are strongly advised to take PHY 203 instead of this course.) Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 104 Cr. 4
Fundamental Physics II
**Continuation of PHY 103. Topics covered are electric forces and fields, electric potential, electrical circuit theory and applications, magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell's equations, alternating current circuits, electromagnetic waves and the nature of light, lenses, mirrors, telescopes, microscopes, cameras, interference and diffraction of light, Einstein's theory of relativity, wave-particle duality, Einstein interpretation of photoelectric effect, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Bohr model of hydrogen atom and Pauli exclusion principle. Additional topics will be selected from lasers and holography, superconductivity, nuclear physics, elementary particles, astrophysics and cosmology. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. MTH 150 recommended. Offered Sem. II.

**+
PHY 106 Cr. 4
Physical Science for Educators
**A survey course focusing on applied physical science and the nature of scientific knowledge. Fundamental theories about the nature and interactions of matter and energy are developed using self-paced, small group, inquiry based teaching modules. The scientific knowledge developed is applied to issues of technology in society and everyday use situations. Emphasis is on modeling science teaching practices advocated by state and national science education standards using active learner practices. Open only to pre-elementary and pre-elementary/middle level students. Lect. 3, Lab. 2.

**PHY 125 Cr. 4
Physics for the Life Sciences
**An introductory study of matter and energy primarily for life science and allied health students. Description of matter, motion, energy, thermodynamics, waves, light electricity, topics in modern physics, with applications to the life sciences. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: MTH 150recommended. Offered Sem. II.

**+
PHY/AST 155 Cr. 4
Solar System Astronomy
**Astronomy as an observational science. Topics studied include: The history of astronomy; astronomical observations; measuring the sky; motions of the Earth, Moon, Sun and planets; models of the solar system; the planets and their moons; comets, asteroids and meteoroids; and the structure and formation of the solar system. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.)

**PHY/AST 156 Cr. 4
Stars and Galaxies
**A study of the nature of light, the sun, properties of other stars, star clusters, the Milky Way galaxy, other galaxies, quasars, black holes, and cosmology. Particular emphasis will be placed on discoveries made in the last several years such as the nature of dark matter, foam structure of the universe, fingerprints of the very early universe discovered with the cosmic background explorer satellite, Supernova 1987A, neutrino astrophysics and solar neutrinos, unified black hole models of quasars, Seyfert galaxies and BL Lac objects and gravitational wave observatories. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: AST/PHY 155. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.) Offered Sem. II.

**+
PHY 203 Cr. 4
General Physics I
**A broad introduction to the study of physics using the techniques of calculus. Topics covered are vectors, kinematics, Newton's laws of motion, circular motion, work, energy, momentum, rigid body motion, angular momentum, torque, oscillatory motion, gravitation, fluid mechanics, waves, resonances, temperature, ideal gases, heat, first and second laws of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, heat engines and entropy. Additional topics will be selected from chaos, black holes, solar system mechanics, computational physics, rocket motion and wherever possible, applications to other fields of science such as chemistry, biology, geology, medicine and engineering will be discussed. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: MTH 207 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 204 Cr. 4
General Physics II
**Continuation of Physics 203. Topics covered are electric forces and fields, electric potential, electrical circuit theory and applications, magnetic fields, electromagnetics induction, Maxwell's equations, alternating current circuits, electromagnetic waves and the nature of light, lenses, mirrors, telescopes, microscopes, cameras, interference and diffraction of light, Einstein's theory of relativity, wave-particle duality, Einstein interpretation of photoelectric effect, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Pauli exclusion principle. Additional topics will be selected from lasers and holography, superconductivity, nuclear physics, elementary particles, astrophysics and cosmology. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: PHY 103 or 203 and MTH 208 or concurrent enrollment. (This course is highly recommended for all science students who have a familiarity with calculus.) Offered Sem. II.

**PHY 250 Cr. 3
Modern Physics
**The application of principles studied in fundamental or general physics to various areas of research and technology at the forefront of modern physical science. Topics include more detailed studies of special relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic structure, excited states, lasers, crystals, semiconductors, high temperature superconductivity, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, quarks, nucleons, mesons, astrophysics, cosmology, the early universe and the big bang. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry, computer science and mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204 and MTH 150. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 302 Cr. 3
Optics
**Geometrical theory of optical systems with emphasis on physical optics including wave theory of light, interference, diffraction, photometry, electromagnetic theory of light, propagation of light, optical activity, speed of light. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry students. Lect. 3. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY 303 Cr. 1
Optics Laboratory
**A hands-on laboratory course in optics. Selected experiments from geometrical and physical optics to reinforce the basic principles. Use of modern optical devices such as lasers, detectors, and interferometers. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY 311 Cr. 2
Experimental Physics Laboratory
**Basic techniques of measurement used in all areas of experimental physics. Mechanical, thermal, acoustical, optical, and electrical measuring devices. Lab. 4. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204 and MTH 150. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 321 Cr. 3
Classical Mechanics
**Rigorous mathematical development of classical dynamics using vector calculus. Dynamics of a single particle, systems of particles, 2-body motion, rigid bodies, Lagrange's equations, Hamiltonian mechanics, variational principle, coupled oscillations, Einstein's theory of special relativity. In addition, the course will involve extensive discussion of the recent dramatic discoveries in chaos theory. This course is also especially suitable for mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 332 Cr. 3
Electrodynamics
**Fundamental concepts such as vector fields and vector operators, dipole and multipole fields, current distributions and the field quantities which describe surrounding conditions. Solution of LaPlace's and Poisson's equations for given sets of boundary conditions. Recognition and use of mathematical abstractions of the fundamental nature of the electromagnetic field. Maxwell's Equations, propagation of electromagnetic waves in conducting and nonconducting media. The course will also include an extensive discussion of Einstein's theory of relativistic electro-dynamics. This course is also especially suitable for mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208 and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY 335 Cr. 4
Electronics
**This course covers both analog and digital electronics. The lectures discuss material to support the laboratory which includes exercises in the following areas: meters, oscilloscopes, strain gage, diodes, operational amplifiers, gates, flip flops, A/D and D/A conversion, and computer interfacing. This course is intended for those who want a wide command of a wide range of modern electronic concepts and components. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry and computer science students. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or PHY 204 or previous experience with electronics and MTH 150. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 343 Cr. 3
Thermodynamics
**This course explores first and second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic properties of gases, vapors, and gas-vapor mixtures; energy-systems analysis including power cycles, refrigeration cycles and air-conditioning processes. It provides an introduction to thermodynamics of reacting mixtures. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY/AST 362 Cr. 3
Astrophysics
**This course will emphasize modern topics like stellar evolution, stellar and big bang nucleo-synthesis, solar neutrino problem, variable stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays, galaxies and evolution of the very early universe including inflationary models of the big bang and the dark matter problem. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204 and MTH 207. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.) Offered occasionally.

**PHY/AST 363 Cr. 2
Astrophysics Laboratory
**An introduction to current observational techniques in astronomy and astrophysics. Students will learn the basics of electronic detection and imaging of stars and galaxies supplemented with computer visualization techniques. Prerequisite: PHY 104 or 204 and MTH 151. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.) Offered occasionally.

**PHY 376 Cr. 3
Nuclear Radiation Instruments and Measurements
**Structure, behavior, operation and uses of nuclear radiation detection instruments. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of alpha, beta and gamma radiations. Statistics of nuclear counting. Interactions between radiation and matter. Radiation dose. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry and health science students. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: one year of general physics or general chemistry and MTH 150. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY 386 Cr. 3
Radiation Physics
**This course, building on a knowledge of basic physics, explores the area of radiation physics. Characteristics of x and gamma rays are described as well as their interactions in air and matter. The principles involved in the production of radiation are investigated. Methods and instrumentation of measurement of radiation are also covered. Prerequisites: MTH 150, PHY 104, and CHM 104. While designed for radiation therapy majors, the course is open to other students who have met the prerequisites. Offered Sem. I.

**PHY 401 Cr. 3
Quantum Mechanics
**A comprehensive treatment of the modern theory of quantum mechanics, including the Bohr model of the atom, Rutherford scattering, Schroedinger equation with solutions for barrier penetration, square well and the harmonic oscillator, one electron atoms, selection rules, transition rates, identical particles and the Pauli exclusion principle. The course includes the use of Fourier Series and eigenvalue equations. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry and mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 250, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Sem. II.

**PHY/AST 450/550 Cr. 3-15
Physics and Astronomy Internship
**Full- or part-time work experience in a physics or astronomy related position with a public or private agency. Not more than five credits are applicable to a major or three credits to a minor in physics. A written application, departmental acceptance, and appointment of adviser must be completed before registration. Prerequisites: minimum cumulative GPA of 2.25 (2.50 in physics), PHY 104 or 204 plus six credits in physics or astronomy courses above 204 level. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.)

**PHY/AST 453/553 Cr. 1-3
Topics in Physics and Astronomy
**Various subjects of interest to specific groups will be offered on occasion. Specific sub-topics will be assigned each time the course is offered. Such titles might be physical applications of group theory, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray physics, holography, acoustics, archeoastrnomy, advanced experimental physics for school teachers or other areas of current interest. Prerequisite: PHY 104 or 204 or equivalent. Repeatable for credit under different subtitles. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.)

**PHY 460 Cr. 3
Condensed Matter Physics
**This course will include such topics as crystal structure, electrical conductivity, insulators, free electron Fermi gases, energy bands, semiconductors, superconductivity, dielectrics, and ferroelectric crystals. Magnetic phenomena such as diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism will also be studied. Finally, the recent exciting discoveries of high temperature superconductivity and quasicrystals will be explored as well as the relevant technologies. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry students. Prerequisites: PHY 401, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment. Offered occasionally.

**PHY/MTH 461 Cr. 3
Mathematical Physics
**In depth study of topics from vector analysis, Fourier analysis and special functions with emphasis on modeling physical phemomena involving conservative fields, fluid flow, heat conduction, and wave motion. Prerequisite: MTH 353. (Cross-listed with MTH; may only earn credit in PHY or MTH.) PHY 461 may be counted towards both a MTH and PHY major.

**PHY 464 Cr. 4
Computational Physics
**This course is an introduction to the new and rapidly developing field of computational physics. Students will learn the fundamentals of applying numerical, graphical and computational methods to a variety of physics topics ranging from problems in chaos, quantum mechanics, particle physics, fluid dynamics, space radiation and astrophysics. This course is also especially suitable for computer science and mathematics students as well as anyone wishing to seek work in modern industry. Lect.3, Lab.3. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment.

**PHY/AST 466 Cr. 3
General Relativity and Cosmology
**General relativity is the name given to the theory of gravitation developed by Albert Einstein. Topics will include tensor analysis, Einstein field equations and their solution, the search for gravitational waves and an introduction to quantization of the gravitational field. The course will also study how the Einstein field equations led to the prediction of black holes and the big bang. The course will also discuss the work of physicists such as Stephen Hawking via the study of naked singularities, cosmic censorship hypothesis, black hole evaporation and the arrow of time. This course is also especially suitable for mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 104 or 204, MTH 309 and 310. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.) Offered occasionally.

**PHY 470 Cr. 3
Advanced Quantum Mechanics
**Topics will include bound states, collision theory, abstract formulations of quantum mechanics, symmetry and group theory, approximation methods, identical particles, spin, and applications to atoms, molecules and nuclei. In addition relativistic quantum mechanics will be introduced as well as second quantization techniques and an introduction to quantum field theory. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry and mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 401, MTH 309 and 310. Offered occasionally.

**PHY 472 Cr. 3
Particle Physics
**An introduction to the exciting field of modern elementary particles. Topics will include Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, weak interaction theory, quarks, leptons, intermediate vector bosons, and group theoretical formulations of modern gauge theories. Current ideas concerning grand unified theories, supersymmetry, superstring theory and particle astrophysics will also be discussed. This course is also especially suitable for mathematics students. Prerequisites: PHY 401, MTH 309 and 310. Offered occasionally.

**PHY 474 Cr. 4
Advanced Computational Physics
**In-depth study of advanced computational techniques as applied to a wide variety of modern physical phenomena. Topics include scattering, equations of state, stellar structure, atomic structure, nuclear physics, hydrodynamics, and solitons. Monte Carlo methods will also be explored. This course is also especially suitable for computer science and mathematics students. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: PHY 464, MTH 208, and MTH 309 or concurrent enrollment.

**PHY 476 Cr. 4
Advanced Optics
**This course involves both theoretical and experimental work on the latest developments in quantum optics. Topics covered are optical detectors, theory and application of lasers, modern optical concepts and technology. Gaussian beams and optical resonators. Far-infrared lasers, interaction of radiation and quantized matter, nonlinear effects and laser spectroscopy. This course is also especially suitable for chemistry students. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: PHY 302 and 401.

**PHY/AST 497 Cr. 1
Physics and Astronomy Seminar
**This seminar series is especially intended for physics majors and minors and astronomy students. It will consist of a series of talks given by local and visiting scientists as well as interested students. The course provides an excellent opportunity to find out about the latest developments in physics and astronomy and provides an excellent medium by which students can get to know each other and also their professors. All physics majors and minors are urged to sign up for this seminar every semester. One credit is earned each semester by attending all departmental seminars and by either giving one of the seminars or by writing a short report on any one of the seminars. Repeatable for credit to a maximum of eight credits - a maximum of two credits can be used to satisfy elective requirements. Pass/Fail grading. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.)

**PHY/AST 498 Cr. 1-9
Physics and Astronomy Research
**Independent work by a student under the super-vision of a faculty member. The student must submit a written report and give an oral presentation on the results of the investigation. Regular conferences should be arranged by the student with the adviser. Open to selected advanced students who have excellent records in the department. Admission by consent of the department chair. Repeatable for credit with permission of department chair. (Cross-listed with AST; may only earn credit in PHY or AST, not both.)