College of Science and Allied Health

Department Chair: George Huppert

2020 Cowley Hall, 608-785-8333




Professors: Ahmed, Berlin, Cravins, Holder, Huppert, Wilder, D., Wingate;

Associate Professors: Chu, Stoelting; Assistant Professor: Aritan.



Major and minor requirements differ for students in the College of Business Administration, the College of Liberal Studies, and the College of Science and Allied Health from those in the School of Education and the College of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. See separate listings.



Geography Major

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 36 credits, including ESC 101, GEO 110, 201, 250; ESC 221 or 222; one course in physical geography elected from GEO/ESC 303, 323, 343, 422, 425, 426, 460; two courses in cultural geography elected from GEO 202, 300, 306, 307, 309, 324, 329, 409; one course in techniques elected from GEO/ESC 345, 390, 440, 451; two courses in regional geography elected from GEO 204, 304, 311, 312, 315, 316, 317, 328, 331; and electives from those listed above plus 200, 334, 401, 470, 450, 490 and 495.



Geography Major: Applied Geography Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 55 credits, including ESC 101; GEO 110, 201, 250; three courses from ESC 221, 222, GEO/ESC 323, 343, 422, 425, 426, 460; one course from GEO 300, 309, 409; three courses from GEO/ESC 345, 390, 440, 451, 455, 481, 485; one course taken from GEO 450, 490; MTH 151, 205 or 250, 305; C-S 120, and 220 or 224.



Geography Major: Environmental Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 56-60 credits, including ESC 101, GEO 110, 201, 250; five courses from ESC 221, 222, GEO/ESC 303, 422, 323, GEO 324 or 200; GEO/ESC 343, 425, 426, 460, 490; three courses from GEO/ESC 345, 390, 440, 450, 481, 485; MTH 205 or 250, 305; C-S 101 or demonstrated skills; and either BIO 101, 204, and 210, or CHM 103, 104, 301.



Geography Major

(Teacher Certification programs) — 36 credits, including ESC 101; GEO 110, 201, 204, 250, 300, 306, 309, 401, and electives in geography.GEO 200 (if GEO 324 is not taken), EFN 200, and C-I 381 are statutory/administrative code requirements that must be taken in addition to the above sequence.



Geography Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 26 credits, including ESC 101; GEO 110, 201; at least one course in physical geography elected from ESC 221, 222; GEO/ESC 303, 323, 422, 425, 426, 343, 460; one course in cultural geography elected from GEO 202, 300, 306, 307, 309, 324, 409; one course in techniques elected from GEO/ESC 345, 390, 440, 451; one course in regional geography elected from GEO 204, 304, 311, 312, 315, 316, 317, 328, 331; and electives.



Geography Minor

(Teacher Certification programs) — 24 credits, including ESC 101; GEO 110, 201, 204, 306, 309 and electives in geography.


GEO 200 (if GEO 324 is not taken), EFN 200 and C-I 381 are statutory/ administrative code requirements that must be taken in addition to the above sequence.



Earth Science Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 24 credits, including ESC 101; three courses from ESC 221, 222; GEO/ESC 303, 323, 343, 422, 425, 426, 460; one course from GEO/ESC 250, 345, 390, 440, 451, and electives in earth science.

Geography majors who select the earth science minor must take 18 credits in the courses listed above in addition to the 36 required for the major.



Earth Science Minor

(Teacher Certification programs) — 24 credits, including ESC 101; three courses from ESC 221, 222; GEO/ESC 303, 323, 343, 422, 425, 426, 460; one course from GEO/ESC 250, 345, 350, 390, 440, 451, and electives in earth science.


GEO 200 (if GEO 324 is not taken) and C-I 381 are statutory/administrative code requirements that must be taken in addition to the above earth science sequence.

Note:  The earth science minor may be used as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a middle/secondary broadfield science major. See p. 73.



Applied Geography Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 26 credits, including ESC 101, GEO 110 or 201, GEO/ESC 221 or 222 and GEO/ESC 250. Twelve credits from the following two groups of courses: 1) Applied courses - GEO/ESC 345, 390, GEO 409, GEO/ESC 440, 445, 451, 455, 481, 485. 2) Independent work - (Only 3 credits of course work from this group will be applied toward the minor) - GEO/ESC 450, 470, 490, 495.


Students in this minor are required to take MTH 205 or 250. Students who cannot demonstrate fundamental skills in personal computer operation will be required to take C-S 101. Students majoring or minoring in Geography/ Earth Science will not be eligible to obtain the Applied Geography minor.



Geoarchaeology Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 22 credits, including ARC 200, ESC 222, ARC 310, GEO/ESC 323, 343, 426 and one course from ARC 403 or 404. Geography majors who select the geoarchaeology minor must take 18 credits in the courses listed above in addition to the 36 required for the major. Archaeological studies majors who select the geoarchaeology minor must take 19 credits in the courses listed above in addition to the 36 required for the major.



Social Studies Major

(Middle/Secondary Education) —

See description of this broad field major

on p. 74.



Geography/Earth Science Department Honors Program

I.              Admission

A.            Junior standing

B.            15 completed credits in the major

C.            3.25 grade point average in the major and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average

D.            Recommendation by two faculty members in the department

II.            Program

A.            Completion of the major program in Geography and Earth Science

B.            Geography/Earth Science 495 — Seminar in Geography/Earth Science (Honors Seminar), 1 cr.

C.            Geography/Earth Science 490 — Independent Study, 2-3 cr.

III.           Evaluation

A.            Cumulative 3.50 grade point average in the major and a cumulative grade point of 3.00 at graduation

B.            Distinguished performance on a paper/project in GEO 490

C.            Presentation of paper/project to the faculty and students in the




                + above a course number indicates aGeneral Education course.




ESC        101                                                                                                                                     Cr. 4

Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science concentrates on a broad understanding of the earth’s lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere through a scientific approach to fundamental concepts in earth science such as plate tectonics, slope processes, atmospheric radiation balance, climate change, and the hydrologic cycle. Lect. 3, Lab. 2.



GEO       110                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

World Cultural Regions

This course provides an understanding of the global distribution of world cultures. The cultural, economic and natural patterns and their interrelationships are examined on a global and regional scale. The development and distribution of cultural regions within countries are included when appropriate.



GEO       200                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Conservation of Global Environments

Introduction to natural resources, resource management, environmental and land use ethics, environmental impacts of resource utilization and strategies to resolve environmental conflicts. Course examines the relationships between society and the environment from the global to the local scale.


GEO       201                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of United States and Canada

Physical and cultural characteristics of United States and Canada. Changing patterns of land use and the accompanying economic and cultural development of the various regions.



GEO       202                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Contemporary Global Issues

This course will offer a contemporary multi-disciplinary perspective regarding the major issues and trends confronting the global society as it enters the 21st century. Emphasis will be given to a critical review and assessment of the origin and present condition of the plethora of situations and problems affecting modern global society. The student will also learn to critically evaluate current and future events. The course will incorporate the views and approaches of the following disciplines: sociology/anthropology, economics, geography, political science and history. (Cross-listed with SOC, ANT, ECO, GEO, POL, and HIS 202; may only earn credit in one department)

GEO       204                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of Wisconsin

Geographic patterns in Wisconsin. Physiographic regions, climate, population distribution, resources and their use, agriculture, industry, transportation, and urban growth. Offered occasionally.


ESC        221                                                                                                                                     Cr. 4

Introduction to Climate Systems

An introduction to physical principles and the dynamic processes that govern the behavior of the atmosphere at global and regional scales. Spatial and temporal variations of energy, moisture, circulation, and weather systems; and the patterns of the world climate systems are discussed. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: ESC 101.


ESC        222         Cr. 4

Landforms: Process and Regions

An introduction to the processes that are dominant in forming the landscapes that are exhibited on the earth’s surface. The spatial variation of these phenomena will be studied in light of various classification systems in use today. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: ESC 101.


GEO/ESC   250                                                                                                                                Cr. 3

Fundamentals of Cartography

Methods for the collection of geographic information from various sources. Techniques of representation on maps. Emphasis on the theoretical/fundamental aspects of display of cartographic data, symbolization, map design and planning, and map evaluation through lectures and exercises.


GEO       300                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Population Geography

A systematic analysis of the populations of the world and the geographic factors influencing human existence. A study of the origin and distribution of populations and the cultural features with which they are associated.


GEO/ESC   303                                                                                                                                Cr. 4

Geologic Evolution of the Earth

The study of rocks, associated depositional processes and fossils that reveal environment through geologic time. Emphasis is placed on paleogeographic reconstructions based on the geologic record. Prerequisites: ESC 101, 222. Offered Sem. I, odd numbered years.


GEO       304                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of Europe

Geographic factors in the changing physical, political, cultural and economic patterns in Europe. Emphasis on northwestern, central, and southern Europe and their importance in world affairs. (See GEO 311 for former Soviet Union.)


GEO       306                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Economic Geography

This course introduces the global economic patterns which have shaped and conditioned the world of the 1990s, and the salient economic geography models and approaches which help to explain such patterns. Elements emphasized include the evolution of social and economic organization; the globalization of economic activity since the late 1400s; the interconnectivity of development and underdevelopment; and the relationship between development and social environmental problems. Prerequisite: GEO 110 or GEO/ECO/POL/ANT/SOC/HIS 202 or ECO 110 or HIS 152.


GEO       307                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Political Geography

A real differentiation and analysis of relationships between geographic factors and political entities. This includes physical environment, organization of space, cultural influences, and economic capabilities.


GEO       309                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Urban Geography

Geographical study of cities, their form, function, site and situation. Classification of cities, urban land use patterns, and the role of the city within its region.


GEO       311                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

Investigation of the physical and cultural geographical factors of the former Soviet Union and its satellite nations. Past and present geographical factors are discussed and analyzed in looking to the future of the many new nations that rose out of the ashes of the former Soviet Union. Geographical analysis is based on the nations as separate entities and their relationships and interaction with the region and the world community.


GEO       312                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of Africa

Cultural, physical and economic characteristics including the bases of problems in socio-economic development are investigated from a geographic perspective. Resources, regions, and world-ties are studied.


GEO       315                                                                                                                                     Cr. 2

Geography of Australia, New Zealand and Oceania

Physical and cultural geography of Australia, New Zealand, and the Southwest Pacific. Emphasis on Australia and its changing economic and cultural development.


GEO       316                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of South America

An examination of the physical and cultural features of South America. Special attention will be given to pre-Columbian roots of South America. Other topics include population growth, settlement and regional development of the many nations of South America.


GEO       317                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of Middle America

An examination of the geographical factors important in the cultural and economic patterns of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Special attention will be given to pre-Columbian roots of Middle America. Other topics include population growth, settlement and regional development.


GEO/ESC   323                                                                                                                                Cr. 3


A systematic analysis of surface processes that shape the origin and evolution of the earth’s topographic features. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and methods of geomorphology. Prerequisites: ESC 222 and junior standing. Offered Sem. I, odd-numbered years.


GEO       324                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Conservation of Natural Resources

Treatment of resources such as water, forests, grasslands, soils, minerals, wildlife, and scenery. Philosophy of conservation. Nature and utilization of the resources which sustain the world’s population. Prerequisite: junior standing.


GEO       328                                                                                                                                     Cr. 2

Geography of the Far East

The Sino-Japanese Realm. Peninsular and insular Southeast Asia. Human and physical patterns, economic activities. The Far East in world affairs.


GEO       329                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Historical Geography of the United States

Reconstruction and portrayal of the geography of the United States at selected times. Geographical factors operative as the frontier of white settlement progressed across the continent. Prerequisite: junior standing. Offered occasionally.


GEO       331                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geography of the Middle East, Central and South Asia

Cultural, physical and economic elements of this predominantly Islamic domain are examined from a geographic perspective for a better understanding of this region of the world. Cultural and socio-economic impact of these regions on other regions and cultures of the world, including their resources, are investigated.


GEO/ESC   334                                                                                                                                Cr. 2-6

Field Geography

A study of real landscapes. Experience in observation, study, and evaluation of human use regions and how people adapt and use differing natural environments. Conservation of natural resources, geographic understandings of historical events, and geographic factors affecting changing economics are stressed. Prerequisite: one semester of geography or earth science.


GEO/ESC   343                                                                                                                                Cr. 3


A pro-seminar on the contribution of earth sciences to the interpretation of archaeological contexts. Emphasis is placed on the methods of geoarchaeology and the applications of selected earth science fields to archaeological problems. Prerequisite: ESC 222 or GEO/ESC 323 or 426; or ARC 205 or 310 or 455. Offered Sem. II, odd-numbered years.


GEO/ESC   345                                                                                                                                Cr. 3

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Introduction to remote sensing, emphasizing satellite multispectral observations of the earth applied to such fields as agriculture, forestry, water resources, urban and regional planning, and environmental assessment. Upper Midwest and selected areas worldwide are explored with visual and digital image processing techniques.


GEO/ESC  390                                                                                                                                 Cr. 3

Field Methods

Training in sampling techniques, interviewing procedures, and field surveying methods. Includes reconnaissance and detailed surveys using the altimeter, compass, and plane table. Prerequisite: junior standing.


GEO/ESC   401                                                                                                                                Cr. 1

Focus on Geography: A Capstone Course

A seminar-style course designed to prepare students for graduate school and/or a career in geography/earth science. This course will cover the basic concepts of interviewing, graduate school application, oral presentation of a topic, and the writing of professional abstracts. The development of the field will be studied by the reading and discussion of landmark articles in geography and earth science. Students are expected to actively participate in the assessment of their major. Prerequisite: senior standing. Pass/Fail grading.


GEO       409                                                                                                                                     Cr. 3

Geographic Elements of Land Use Planning

A study of the spatial organization of land as determined by the physical limitations placed by the environment, the social needs of the people as expressed by the population on the land, and the economic forces acting to change land use. The course focuses on the application of land use planning processes to a specific case study area wherein students are asked to demonstrate their ability to integrate geographic determinants in planning land use. Prerequisites: ESC 222, GEO 309.


GEO/ESC   422/522                                                                                                                        Cr. 3

Meteorology and Weather Forecasting

Various principles and laws which govern the behavior of the atmosphere are investigated. Laws of gases and radiation, energy exchange between the earth and the atmosphere, laws of motion, various forces governing atmospheric motion, atmospheric moisture and psychrometry, condensation, preciptable water and precipitation, atmospheric stability/instability, thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere, vorticity, and synoptic meteorology are discussed. Surface and upper-air charts, synoptic patterns, thermodynamic charts, radar and satellite images, and weather patterns are analyzed for weather forecasting. Prerequisite: ESC 101 or quivalent. Offered Sem. II.


GEO/ESC   425/525                                                                                                                        Cr. 3


A systematic analysis of the geographic distribution of organisms from historical, ecological and regional perspectives. Emphasis is placed on the principles and the methods of biogeography. Special reference is made to biogeographic regions, the distribution of organisms in space and time, and ecological biogeography. Prerequisites: ESC 221 and junior standing. Offered Sem. II, even-numbered years.


GEO/ESC   426/526                                                                                                                        Cr. 3

Soil Morphology and Genesis

A systematic analysis of soil morphology, weathering, factors of soil formation and soil-forming processes. Emphasis is placed on soil landscapes and the field study of soils. Special reference is made to current systems of soil classification. Prerequisites: ESC 221 or 222 and junior standing. Offered Sem. I, even-numbered years.


GEO/ESC   440/540                                                                                                                        Cr. 3

Geographic Interpretation of Aerial Photographs

Systematic applications of aerial photographs in the interpretation and analysis of geographic problems. Emphasis is placed on drainage, landforms, vegetation, soils, urban and rural land use and transportation. Lect.2, Lab 2. Offered Sem. I, odd-numbered years.


GEO/ESC   445/545                                                                                                                        Cr. 3

Advanced Remote Sensing

Techniques of digital image processing emphasizing computer-assisted processing of satellite/airborne, digital data applied to natural resource, agricultural, land use, archaeological, and environmental problems. Study of data sources, acquisition, data integrity, manipulation, formatting, storage and retrieval; integration with a geographic information system for spatial analyses and decision-making. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: GEO 345. Offered Sem. I.


GEO/ESC   450                                                                                                                                Cr. 3-12

Geography Internship

Practical experience with a variety of organizations where the student’s graphic background and training can be utilized to advantage. Students are placed in carefully selected positions screened by the department. Actual work supervision is accomplished by personnel of the selected agency and the department staff coordinator. A maximum of five credits may be counted toward the non-education major. Prerequisites: geography major, junior standing, overall grade point of 2.25 with a minimum of 2.75 in geography. Pass/Fail grading.


GEO/ESC   451/551                                                                                                                        Cr. 3

Cartographic Methods

Application of the fundamental methods of cartography, including map compilation and design, thematic mapping, and automated methods of map production. Emphasis on current techniques of map reproduction such as scribing, photo reproduction, computer-assisted cartography and introductory geographic information systems. Prerequisite: GEO/ESC 250 and MTH 205 or 250. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Offered Sem. I.


GEO/ESC    455/555                                                                                                                       Cr. 3

Applied Map Design and Production in Cartography and GIS

This course explores both manual and digital methods in cartographic design and production, map design theory, perceptual aspects of map symbols, methods of production for small format and large format maps, cost efficiency factors, design environments in GIS packages, production of both monochromatic and color maps, map publishing. Prerequisite: GEO 250.


GEO/ESC    460/560                                                                                                                       Cr. 3

Environmental Hazards and Land Use Planning

Environmental processes are investigated in light of the hazards they might pose for development and how they may be avoided or mitigated by proper land use planning. Prerequisite: ESC 221 or 222.


GEO/ESC   470/570                                                                                                                        Cr. 1-3

Special Topics in Geography/ Earth Science

Specifically selected topics or skills which may be designed for the interest of special groups will be offered with formalized instruction and methodology appropriate to geography and/or earth science. May be counted as an elective in the geography major or earth science minor at the discretion of the Geography/Earth Science Department. Prerequisite may be required at the discretion of the department. Repeatable for credit — maximum 6. Pass/Fail grading. Offered occasionally.


GEO/ESC    476/576                                                                                                                       Cr. 1-3

Geography/Earth Science Topics for Teachers

Selected topics in geography and/or earth science pertinent to applications in the teachers’ classrooms. Courses are designed to meet the needs of teachers so that they may implement the course material into their classroom teaching. Offered occasionally.

GEO/ESC    481/581                                                                                                                       Cr. 3

Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

An introduction to both theoretical and applied aspects of Geographic Information Systems. GIS software with an emphasis on ARC/INFO will be used to analyze management of resources, environmental assessment, business location, and urban/regional planning. Topics will include: data organization, database structure, input and output, data quality, and geographic analysis of spatial and attribute data. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: GEO 250 and MTH 205 or 250. Offered. Sem. II.

GEO       485/585                                                                                                                             Cr. 3

Advanced Geographic Information Systems

Advanced theories in GIS database structures, advanced applications, database transfers, database management, use of census data, spatial analysis, decision-making. Emphasis on ARC/INFO and its applications. Integration of GIS with Remote Sensing and GPS. Prerequisite: GEO 481. Offered Sem. II.


GEO/ESC   490/590                                                                                                                        Cr. 2-3

Independent Study

Individual readings and investigation of selected problems in geography. Open to senior majors and minors with a “B” (3.00) average in geography. Registration with consent of regular adviser, instructor, department chairperson, and the dean of the college in which the student is enrolled. Maximum credit applicable to major— 3; maximum credit from any instructor — 3. Repeatable for credit — maximum 6.


GEO/ESC   495/595                                                                                                                        Cr. 1-3

Seminar in Geography/ Earth Science

Investigation into various topics in geography or the earth sciences. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. Prerequisite: two semesters of geography and/or earth science. Additional prerequisites may be required by the instructor. Repeatable for credit — maximum 6. Variable topics; check semester timetables. Offered occasionally.