Biology (BIO)

College of Science and Health
Department Chair: David Howard
3004 Cowley Hall,
(608)785-8238
email: howard.davi@uwlax.edu

www.uwlax.edu/biology

Professors: Abhold, Brice, Cooper, Gillis, Haro, Howard, Maher, Miskowski, Sandheinrich, Tyser, Volk;
Associate Professors: Abler, M., Galbraith, Gerber, Seebach;
Assistant Professors: Downey, King-Heiden, Perez, Sandland, Thomsen;
Lecturers: Ellis, Hoar, K., Redman.

Biology Major

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 39 credits – (58 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 302, 303*, 312*, 313*, 321, 330, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 408, 410, 412, 413, 414, 419, 422, 424, 428, 429, 432, 433, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 447, 448, 449, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468; MIC 230, 350, 406, 420, 421, 426, 427, 428, 434. A maximum of two non-lab courses may be applied toward the biology major elective requirements, excluding BIO 499. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may be used as electives. Three semesters (15 credits) of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305) and MTH 145 (four credits) are required.

*A maximum of eight credits of BIO 303. 312, 313 can be applied to the major.

Biology Major: Aquatic Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 39 credits – (67 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 341, 491; MIC 230; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 405, 414, 419, 422, 441, 447, 448, 463, 464; MIC 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. A minimum of 20 chemistry credits is required, including CHM 103, 104, 301, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305). A minimum of eight credits of mathematics including MTH 145 and 175 or 207 is required.

Biology Major: Biomedical Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 39 credits – (67 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203 (or 204 and 210), 306, 307, 312, 313, 315, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 406, 408,410, 413, 424, 428, 429, 432, 433, 435, 436, 440, 443, 449, 463, 465, 466, 467, 468; MIC 230, 406, 407, 420, 421. Up to two elective credits from a combination of BIO 450, 479, 489, 495, 499 of which only BIO 499 can be taken for two credits. A minimum of 24 chemistry credits is required including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305), 301, and 325 (or 417 and 418). MTH 145 (four credits) is required.

Biology Major: Cellular and Molecular Biology Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 39 credits – (71 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203 (or 204 and 210), 306, 307, 315, 435, 436, 440, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 303*, 312*, 313*, 337, 406, 408, 410, 412, 424, 428, 429, 432, 433, 443, 449, 463, 466, 468; MIC 230, 406, 420, 421, and 427. Up to two credits from BIO 450, 479, 489, 495, and 499 may count toward the major. A minimum of 24 chemistry credits is required including: CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305), 301, 325 (or 417 and 418). A minimum of eight credits of mathematics is also required, including MTH 145 and 175 or 207.

Biology Major: Environmental Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) — 39 credits – (67 total credits including CHM, MTH, and GEO requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 419, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 302, 321, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 412, 414, 422, 429, 441, 442, 447, 448, 463, 464; MIC 230, 350, 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. Three semesters (15 credits) of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304 and 305) and eight credits of mathematics are required, including MTH 145 and 175 or 207. A minimum of five credits of environmental science support courses is also required which includes CHM 301, or two courses selected from GEO/ESC 345, 385, 485, or two courses selected from CS 120, 220, MTH 305, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448.

Biology Major

(Teacher Certification programs) — 36 credits – (59 total credits including CHM, MTH and DPI requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 491; MIC 230; remaining electives from: BIO 202, 302, 303*, 312*, 313*, 321, 330, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 408, 412, 413, 414, 419, 422, 424, 428, 429, 432, 433, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 447, 448, 449, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 490; MIC 230, 350, 406, 420, 426, 427, 428, 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. A maximum of two non-lab courses may be applied toward the biology major elective requirement, excluding BIO 490 and 499. In addition to this sequence, GEO 200 and CI 381 are DPI requirements. Additional teacher education requirements are listed on page 111. Three semesters of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305), and MTH 145 are required (total 23 credits). BIO 429

— Evolution — is strongly recommended.

Note:

Each student must have a minimum of three 400-level BIO credits (excluding BIO 450, 479, 489, 491, 492, 495, and 499) to fulfill requirements of the major. BIO 492 may be taken in lieu of BIO 491 by Biology Honors Program students.

Biology Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) - 24 credits - BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, and electives* in biology or microbiology, including at least one course numbered 302 or above. (BIO 102, 106, and MIC 100, 407, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement, excluding BIO 499.

Biology Minor

(Teacher certification programs) - 22 credits - BIO 103 or 105, 204, 210, 306, 307; MIC 230 or BIO 315. (BIO 102, 106, and MIC 100, 407, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement, excluding BIO 490 and 499. In addition to the above sequence, GEO 200 and CI 381 are required. (total four credits).

Broad-field Science Major

(Teacher Certification Programs). See description of this broad-field major on the Curriculum and Instruction page.

Nutrition Minor

Dual Degree Program in Physical Therapy

This is a special dual degree program which enables a student to receive both a Bachelor of Science degree (biology major) and a Doctor of Physical Therapy from UW-La Crosse. It requires at least three years of attendance at the undergraduate level and two or more years of attendance in the graduate program in physical therapy. During the first three years, students will complete General Education and college core requirements, physical therapy prerequisite course work, and many of the requirements for the biology major. Students admitted to the graduate program will complete physical therapy courses that will apply to the biology major.

Biology majors who have completed the required prerequisite course work with a minimum 3.0 grade point average will be guaranteed a personal interview for the physical therapy program. Admission is competitive, so a personal interview does not guarantee acceptance into the graduate program.

Dual Degree Program in Chiropractic

Students spend three years (94 credits) at UW-La Crosse completing General Education requirements, Palmer College core requirements, and many of the requirements for a B.S. degree in biology (biomedical science concentration), with a 3.0 cumulative GPA. These students then are admitted to Palmer College for three years of study, leading to the Doctor of Chiropractic degree. Upon completion of this degree, Palmer credits transfer back to UW-La Crosse as 36.3 semester credits to satisfy all requirements for a B.S. degree in biology: biomedical science. In six years, successful students earn both a Bachelor of Science degree from UW-La Crosse and a Doctor of Chiropractic degree. For complete degree requirements, see the pre-chiropractic adviser.

Honors Program in Biology

  1. Admission
    1. Junior Standing
    2. 15 credits in biology, including one 300-level course
    3. 3.25 grade point average in biology courses and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average
    4. Recommendation by two faculty members in student's major department
  2. Program
    1. Completion of a regular major program in biology
    2. BIO 492: Honors Seminar, 1 credit
    3. BIO 499: Independent Research, 2 credits
  3. Evaluation
    1. A cumulative 3.50 grade point average in the major at time of graduation and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average
    2. Distinguished performance on a project developed in BIO 499
    3. Presentation of the project developed in BIO 499 to a colloquium of faculty and students in the major department
  4. Methods of Implementation
    1. Admission
      1. Announcement of program sophomore-level biology classes
      2. Application form
        1. academic record
        2. reasons for wishing to participate
        3. signatures of two faculty members in the major
    2. Program
      1. BIO 492: Honors Seminar will be offered one semester each year unless the number of students involved requires more than one section
      2. BIO 499: Independent Research will be offered each semester
  5. Recognition
    1. Honors certificate

Pigeon Lake Field Station in Northern Wisconsin

The University of Wisconsin System sponsors summer programs at Pigeon Lake Field Station near Drummond, Wis. Appropriate course work successfully completed at Pigeon Lake is credited as resident study by the university.

Pigeon Lake Field Station is a natural laboratory in the heart of the Chequamegon National Forest. Sixteen rustic cabins (each accommodating eight students), a dining hall, recreation hall, and three classroom/laboratory buildings are situated near the lake’s 1,400-foot shoreline. Excellent facilities are available for boating, swimming, and fishing.

The station is used principally for programs in field biology, the natural sciences, outdoor recreation, outdoor education, and art. Courses vary in length from one to three weeks. Graduate and undergraduate courses are publicized in the early spring. For further details, contact the biology department.

The biology department incorporates a significant amount of writing through the required courses instead of identifying particular courses as writing emphasis courses. Students who complete the biology major, including any of the concentrations, will fulfill the university writing emphasis requirement.


+ next to a course number indicates a General Education course.


+ BIO 102 Cr. 3 Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences

An intra-disciplinary approach to investigating current issues within the biological sciences. Specific topics under the general categories of health, medicine, environment, genetics, and industrial technology will be identified, described and characterized. The science underlying the issue will be explored and the potential impact (past and future) of applied scientific advances within the respective disciplines will be examined in depth. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Offered occasionally.

+ BIO 103 Cr. 4 Introductory Biology

A survey of modern biology. Subjects discussed include ecology, cell biology and genetics. Themes developed through the course are the use of the scientific method and the relationships between society, technology and science. This course is designed as a general education course for non-science or non-allied health majors. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Students cannot earn credit in both BIO 103 and 105. Offered Fall, Spring.

+ BIO 105 Cr. 4 General Biology

An introduction to biology including topics in ecology, population biology, nutrient cycling, food webs, cell structure and function, metabolism, photosynthesis, reproduction, genetics, molecular biology and evolution. This course provides a strong foundation for further science courses, and is designed for science majors, allied health majors and students with an interest in science. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Students cannot earn credit in both BIO 103 and 105. Offered Fall, Spring.

BIO 106 Cr. 3 Nature Study

A study of the common plants and animals of the area. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Offered occasionally.

+ BIO/PSY 107 Cr. 3 Brain Basics: Linking Society and Neuroscience

Students will be introduced to the field of neuroscience, including an examination of the cells that make the brain operate, how they operate together to form structures and systems, and how the operation of these systems relates to human behavior. The range of behaviors to be examined will include everyday learning and memory, sleeping and dreaming, as well as an exploration of the brain when abnormal behaviors occur. We will also investigate the impact that advances in the neurosciences have had on society in general. (Cross-listed with PSY; may only earn credit in BIO or PSY.) Not applicable to biology major or minor. Offered occasionally.

BIO 202 Cr. 2 Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Interpretation

This course is an introduction to the common techniques used by biologists to efficiently and effectively process, interpret, and communicate ideas and information generated in the biological sciences. Students will earn the techniques in a hands – on approach using biological databases. Topics covered in this course will include basic laboratory field notebook production and use; the use, analysis and interpretation of databases, graphs, tables, charts and other visual aids used in scientific papers and techniques for digital microscopic image production and analysis. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 103 or 105. Offered Winter or Summer.

BIO 203 Cr. 4 Organismal Biology

A survey of the diverse form and function of prokaryotes, protistans, fungi, plants and animals. Basic ecology, natural history, evolution, biogeography and importance of organisms to humans will be emphasized. Not applicable toward general biology major, aquatic science or environmental science concentrations. Not for biology credit if BIO 204 or BIO 210 taken. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: Bio 103 or 105 with a grade of “C” or better and CHM 103 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Spring.

BIO 204 Cr. 3 Plant Biology

An investigation of the general morphology and life patterns of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria — with emphasis on plants — and inquiry into their economic importance, ecology, evolution, growth and development. The importance of photosynthetic organisms will be a general theme throughout the course. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105 with a grade of “C” or better. Offered Spring.

BIO 210 Cr. 3 Animal Biology

A phylogenetic survey of the animal kingdom beginning with single-celled organisms and ending with vertebrates. Innovation of form and function of each major taxonomic group will be discussed along with their ecology, natural history, distribution and relationship to humans. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105 with a grade of “C” or better. Offered Spring.

BIO 260 Cr. 1-3 Special Topics in Biology

Topics in biology of interest to selected groups. Topics will be offered with a specific title. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105. Repeatable for credit –- maximum six. Offered occasionally.

BIO 302 Cr. 2 Introductory Plant Identification

Introduction to the identification of trees, shrubs, and other herbacious plants of both local native and cultivated species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204. Offered Fall odd-numbered years.

BIO 303 Cr. 4 Vertebrate Form and Function

Anatomy and physiology of the vertebrates with the rat as the basic study animal. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105. Offered occasionally.

BIO 306 Cr. 4 Genetics

A comprehensive study of the basic principles of heredity, including Mendelian and Molecular Genetics. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105 with a grade of “C” or better and a second biology course applicable to the major. Offered Spring.

BIO 307 Cr. 3 Ecology

A study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of living organisms.  The basic principles of ecology are presented in order to develop an understanding of the nature of these interactions at the individual, population and community levels of biological organization.  Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204 and 210. Offered Fall, Spring.

BIO 312 Cr. 4 Human Anatomy and Physiology I

A comprehensive study of general anatomical and physiological principles of cells, body fluid compartments, the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems and the special senses. Required elements of the laboratory portion of the course include computer simulations, microscopy, mammal organ dissections and the study of cadaver prosections. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105 with a grade of “C” or better and CHM 103 with a grade of “C” or better. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 313 Cr. 4 Human Anatomy and Physiology II

A comprehensive study of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive and the endocrine systems. Required elements of the laboratory portion of this course include computer simulations, microscopy, mammal organ dissections and the study of cadaver prosections. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 312. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 315 Cr. 4 Cell Biology

A comprehensive overview of cell structure and function, including the nature of biomolecules, cellular metabolism and its regulation, the dynamics of membranes and the cytoskeleton, the execution and control of the cell cycle, cell interactions, and cell signaling. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, one additional semester of biology, MTH 145, and a minimum of three semesters of chemistry through organic chemistry. Offered Fall, Spring.

BIO 321 Cr. 3 Ornithology

Field identification and ecology of birds with emphasis on Wisconsin forms. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 210 or 303. Offered Spring.

BIO 330 Cr. 3 Economic Botany

Plants provide humans with food, feed, fuel, fiber, pharmaceuticals, and other economically important products. This course provides an introduction to domesticated plant varieties and wild plant species and their value in human and domestic animal nutrition, and as energy sources, manufactured materials, and drugs. Ethnobotanical interests in wild plant species will also be discussed. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204. Offered Spring odd-numbered years.

BIO 337 Cr. 3 Plant Physiology

An introduction to plant water relations, mineral nutrition, respiration, photosynthesis, growth, and development with emphasis on the physiology of seed plants. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204. Offered occasionally.

BIO 341 Cr. 3 Limnology

This course includes fundamentals of aquatic ecology, with special reference to community ecology. Taxonomy, stratification and succession of organisms to be investigated. Energy traffic through aquatic ecosystems will also be investigated. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, one additional biology course, and one semester of chemistry. Offered Fall.

BIO 390 Cr. 2 Latin and Greek Roots in Scientific Terminology

Most scientific terminology comes to us as derived from Latin and Greek words. This course provides a solid background in scientific vocabulary by learning root words, prefixes and suffixes, as well as combinations of two or more root words and prefixes. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105. Does not apply toward biology major or any concentration. Offered Fall.

BIO 404/504 Cr. 3 Plant Taxonomy

Collection, identification, classification, and evolution of the vascular plants with emphasis on local flora. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204. Offered Spring odd-numbered years.

BIO 405/505 Cr. 2 Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants

Identification and collection of vascular plants of aquatic and marsh habitats with emphasis on adaptive morphology and ecology of local species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204. Offered Fall even-numbered years.

BIO 406/506 Cr. 4 Parasitology

A survey of the major groups of animal parasites with regard to their taxonomy, morphology, life histories, host-parasite relationships, and economic importance. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 210 or 303. Offered Fall.

BIO 408/508 Cr. 4 Developmental Biology

A study of primarily animal embryonic development including fertilization, cleavage, cell determination, gastrulation, organ-system development, pattern formation and cell differentiation. Genetic control of developmental processes using various vertebrate and invertebrate models will be integrated and emphasized. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 210 or 303; BIO 306 or MIC 416; BIO 315 recommended. Offered Spring.

BIO 410 Cr. 1 Human Cadaver Dissection

This supervised cadaver dissection course uses a regional anatomy approach and is designed to improve a student’s competency in human gross anatomy. Students will prepare a human cadaver prosection for use in undergraduate anatomy and physiology laboratories. In addition to dissections, students will use computer-based learning projects and literature reviews to enhance their understanding of human anatomy and the historical and current role of cadavers in society. Lab 3, out-of-class 2. Prerequisite: BIO 312, 313, 479; consent of instructor. Offered Summer.

BIO 412/512 Cr. 4 Mycology

A survey of all the major groups of fungi of the fungal kingdom (and relatives) in terms of systematics, anatomy, morphology, ecology, physiology, genetics, evolutionary relationships, and human and plant pathology. Laboratory includes microscopic and macroscopic study of the fungi, as well as making a collection of cultures and of fungal reproductive structures (including mushrooms) from selected groups. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204 or MIC 230. Both are strongly recommended. Offered Fall.

BIO 413/513 Cr. 3 Medical Mycology

A study of the increasing number of medically important fungi, including the yeasts, molds, other fungi, and actinomycetes that are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 412 or MIC 230. Offered Spring.

BIO 414/514 Cr. 3 Freshwater Invertebrate Zoology

Introduces the ecology and taxonomy of the metazoan, non–parasitic freshwater invertebrates. An extensive course designed to provide a foundation for taxonomic knowledge, and basic understanding of the biology and ecology of freshwater invertebrates for advanced students in aquatic and environmental sciences. Lectures will focus on ecology; labs on taxonomy and quantitative skills. A student reference collection and field trips will be required. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 210 or 341. Offered Fall even-numbered years.

BIO 419/519 Cr. 3 Quantitative Methods in Ecology

An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341. Offered Fall.

BIO 422/522 Cr. 3 Ichthyology

An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341. Offered Fall.

BIO 424/524 Cr. 3 Endocrinology

A comprehensive study of the production, regulation, structure, molecular to whole body actions, metabolism, and excretion of biochemical signaling molecules. The classical and more recently recognized neurotransmitter and hormone pathways and clinical considerations of each will be explored using lecture, laboratory exercises, and case studies. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or 312 and 313. Offered Fall.

BIO 428/528 Cr. 3 Advanced Nutrition for Health Professions

A comprehensive study of nutrition-related diseases and nutrition assessment, evaluation, and management in clinical settings that people working in healthcare may encounter. Prerequisite: BIO 313 or NUT 200. Offered Spring.

BIO 429/529 Cr. 3 Evolution

Consideration of the principles and the record of organic evolution of plants and animals. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered Spring. 

BIO 432/532 Cr. 2 Biology of Cancer

A survey of the current knowledge of cancer biology. The course will include lectures, readings and discussions on a wide range of cancer topics, including: characteristics of cancer cells, carcinogenesis, cancer genes, tumor classification, invasion, metastasis, impact of cancer on body functions, epidemiology, inheritance, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or 313, and BIO 306 or MIC 416. Offered Fall.

BIO 433/533 Cr. 3 Radiation Biology

Applications and effects of nuclear radiation on biological systems. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, one additional course in biology, and CHM 103. Offered Spring.

BIO 435/535 Cr. 3 Molecular Biology

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. The course will focus on the molecular aspects controlling biological processes. The impact of recombinant DNA technology on biotechnology and medicine will also be examined. Prerequisite: BIO 306 and 315, or MIC 416, and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry strongly recommended. BIO 436 is an optional laboratory which can be taken concurrently. Offered Fall.

BIO 436/536 Cr. 1 Molecular Biology Laboratory

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Laboratory emphasis is on recombinant DNA technology, current techniques used to express recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells, computer based DNA analysis, macromolecular modeling using computers, and quantitative assay techniques. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 435. Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 435 must be taken concurrently. Offered Fall.

BIO 437/537 Cr. 3 Plant Growth and Development

Discussion of experiments and analysis of research data obtained from the living plant. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204 or equivalent. Offered occasionally.

BIO 439/539 Cr. 3 Plant Anatomy

A detailed examination of plant structure and development as revealed with the light and electron microscopes. Primarily seed plants will be examined. Structure and development will be studied as a means by which plants cope with their ecology, evolution and function. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204 or an equivalent general botany course. Offered occasionally.

BIO/MIC 440/540 Cr. 2 Bioinformatics

In this course, students will use computers to study and compare the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or the amino acids in a protein. Computers are also used to examine the three dimensional structure of protein.  Being able to manipulate and study this information is the basis for the current revolution in Biotechnology. Topics include evolution, taxonomy, genomics and understanding disease. This course provides students an opportunity to explore the relationships between biology, microbiology, chemistry and computer science. Cross-listed with MIC, may only earn credit in BIO or MIC, not both. Prerequisite: BIO 306 or MIC 416. Lect. 1, Lab 2. Offered Spring, Winter.

BIO 441/541 Cr. 3 Environmental Toxicology

The study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants on ecosystems and humans. Topics covered include environmental legislation, chemical distribution and fate in the environment, methods of toxicity testing, assessment of exposure and risk, effects of chemical contaminants on humans, and fish and wildlife populations, communities and ecosystems, and toxicity of specific chemical groups. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or 341; CHM 104. Offered Spring odd-numbered years.

BIO/MIC 442/542 Cr. 3 Plant Microbe Interactions

This course will explore in depth various ways that plants interact with microbes in the environment, at the macroscopic, cellular, and molecular levels. Case studies will include both parasitic and mutualistic (symbiotic) interactions. Microbes include fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. Includes plant pathology and studies of the beneficial relationships between plants and microbes. Inquiry based labs are integrated into the lecture and discussion sessions. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204; MIC 230; BIO 306 or MIC 416. Offered Spring even-numbered years.

BIO 443/543 Cr. 3 Molecular Mechanism of Disease and Drug Action

A survey of the leading non-infectious and non-cancerous diseases in the industrialized world. This course will explore the molecular mechanisms of disease, clinical symptomology, and pharmacological treatment. Students will be expected to conduct thorough research on a given disease and present their results in a poster session. Prerequisite: BIO 306, 313; CHM 300 or 304. Offered Spring.

BIO 447/547 Cr. 3 Standard Methods and Quality Assurance of Water Analyses

This course will instruct students on the use of standard methods for analyses of selected biological, chemical, and physical constituents commonly included in water quality analyses. Quality assurance procedures, including Good Laboratory Practice Standards (GLPS) will be integrated into all activities. Materials covered include: principles of methods used; evaluation of precision, bias, and contamination; proper reporting and interpretation of results; and environmental sources and significance of constituents analyzed. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204 or 210 or 303, and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 recommended. Offered Spring odd-numbered years.

BIO 448/548 Cr. 4 Aquatic Toxicology

A study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and environmental legislation. Procedures for toxicity evaluation, experimental design and statistical analysis will be emphasized in the laboratory. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: four semesters of college biology, and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 recommended. Offered occasionally.

BIO 449/549 Cr. 3 Microtechnique and Electron Microscopy

Principles and techniques used in modern microscopy and biological image analysis. Emphasis will be on student projects to become proficient at confocal, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Students will also learn specimen preparation, digital imaging, and image processing and analysis for biological applications. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: junior standing and either BIO 315 or MIC 230. Offered Fall even-numbered years.

BIO 450 Cr. 1-3 Internship in Biology

An academically relevant field experience in government, industry, business, or community agencies. Students must have their internships approved and be advised by the department. Students must be on their internship worksite during the semester for which they are registered for academic credit. Credits earned will count only toward university electives and not toward the completion of any major or minor unless listed. Repeatable for credit – maximum eight. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 460/560 Cr. 1-3 Symposium in Biology

Studies in biology of interest to specific groups. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Prerequisite: four semesters of biology. Repeatable for credit –maximum six. Offered occasionally.

BIO 463/563 Cr. 3 Aquatic Animal Health

The study of pathogens of aquatic animals, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, amphibians, waterfowl and mammals. Sections on nutrition and toxicology are included. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105, 203 or 210 or 303, and CHM 103; MIC 230 strongly recommended. Offered occasionally.

BIO 464/564 Cr. 3 Stream and Watershed Ecology

An introduction to key concepts and theory pertinent to understanding and managing fluvial ecosystems (rivers and streams) and their watersheds. The course emphasizes rivers as large-scale physical and biological systems. Course work includes a comparative case study of distinctive types of temperate, tropical, and polar rivers. Prerequisite: BIO 341 or BIO 307. Offered Spring.

BIO 465/565 Cr. 3 Neurophysiology

An examination of the nervous system beginning at the cellular level and working up to neuronal systems. Topics covered include the ionic basis of membrane potentials, synaptic communication, organization of functional circuits of neurons, and systems within the brain and/or spinal cord which control learning and memory, vision and motor function. Exploration of these fundamental neurophysiology topics from the basis for understanding a variety of student-selected topics which will be covered later in the semester. Late-semester topics often include higher-order aspects of brain function or challenges to the nervous system, such as the repair of brain or spinal cord injury, degenerative disease states, dyslexia, or gender differences. BIO 467 is an optional laboratory course which can be taken concurrently. Prerequisite: BIO 312. Offered Spring.

BIO 466/566 Cr. 3 Human Molecular Genetics

A study of the basic principles of heredity in humans. Focus will be on modern molecular techniques used in isolating human disease genes and modes of inheritance of human traits and disorders. Ethical issues in human genetics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered Fall.

BIO 467/567 Cr. 2 Neurobiology Laboratory Techniques

An introduction to common laboratory techniques in neurobiology, including electrophysiology with invertebrate preparations, mammalian neuronal cell culture, and computational modeling. Students will receive training in techniques while performing classical experiments, then design their own novel experiments and carry them out. Prerequisite: BIO 312; BIO 465 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Spring odd-numbered years.

BIO 468/568 Cr. 1 Human Molecular Genetics Lab

A study of the techniques used in doing research in human molecular genetics with a focus on commonly used model organisms in the study of human genetic disorders. Laboratory emphasis is on phenotype analysis, library screening, DNA microarray analysis, gene mapping, and bioinformatics. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 466. Prerequisite: BIO 306, BIO 466 concurrently. Lab. 3. Offered Fall.

BIO 479 Cr. 1 Biology Teaching Assistant

An opportunity to assist in the preparation and/or instruction of a biology course. Working with a faculty mentor(s), students may be expected to assist in the development and preparation of course materials, course instruction and student assessment. Prerequisite: AB or better grade in the class in which the student will be assisting and approval of instructor of the class in which the student will be assisting. Departmental option for Pass/Fail grading. Repeatable for credit – maximum two. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 489 Cr. 1 Independent Study in Biology

A directed reading project or job shadowing experience within the discipline but outside that offered through regularly scheduled courses. Under the direction of the supervising faculty member (and in coordination with mentoring professional for job shadowing experience). A written report is an expected outcome. Admission by instructor consent and department approval. Repeatable for credit – maximum two . Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 490/590 Cr. 1-3 Current Topics in Biology Education

Biological researchers produce new discoveries almost daily. The purpose of this course is to train K-12 pre-service and in-service teachers in the current technologies and theories used in biology and to demonstrate the current approaches to teaching these materials. Repeatable for credit under different topics. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology, except for teacher certification major. Departmental option for Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall.

BIO 491 Cr. 1 Capstone Seminar in Biology

A seminar-style course designed for students to review and discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences and to assess their major in biology. This course will cover basic concepts of resume and cover letter writing, quantitative skills, computer literacy and current topics in biology. Students are expected to actively participate in an assessment of their major, and participate in discussions on major issues and developments in the biological sciences. Students will present a seminar on a contemporary biological topic incorporating primary literature. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered Fall, Spring.

BIO 492 Cr. 1 Honors Capstone Seminar in Biology

A seminar-style course designed for students to review and discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences and to assess their major in biology. This course will cover basic concepts of resume and cover letter writing, quantitative skills, computer literacy and current topics in biology. Students are expected to actively participate in an assessment of their major, and participate in discussions on major issues and developments in the biological sciences. Students will present a seminar on a contemporary biological topic incorporating primary literature. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered Fall, Spring.

BIO 495 Cr. 1-3 Service Learning in Biology

Students will plan, implement, and reflect on community service projects that will allow them to apply, enhance, and share what they have learned in a specific area of focus (such as aquatic science, nutrition, etc.) in cooperation with one or more community partners. The student’s university adviser(s) and the participating community partner(s) will provide constructive evaluation of the project and student reflections throughout the experience. The student will provide formal written and oral communications to the advising faculty and community partner(s) regarding the outcomes of the service project. Prerequisite: junior standing. Repeatable for credit – maximum three. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIO 499 Cr. 1-3 Independent Research

Individual research projects. Open to advanced students. Prerequisite: four semesters of biology and the completion of a consent form signed by the project director. Students may enroll for one – three credits per semester for a maximum of six credits. A maximum of two credits can be applied to the major in biology. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

Microbiology