EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE (ESS)

 

College of Science and Health

Department Chair: Patrick DiRocco

137 Mitchell Hall, 608.785.8173

e-mail: dirocco.patr@uwlax.edu

 

www.uwlax.edu/sah/ess

 

Professors: Foster, Mikat, Porcari, Steffen, Tymeson, Yu;

Associate Professors: Di Rocco, Wright;

Assistant Professors: Asola, Felix, Gibson, M., Gordon, Mally, Pein;

Lecturers: Dobertstein, Dodge, Emineth, Gibson, B., Gillette, Gorman, Healy, M., Healy, P., Heeren, Helixon, Kline, Malecek, Mickschl, Perkins, Petersen, Robertson, White

 

Center of Excellence in Physical Education

The Center of Excellence designation was awarded to the Department of Exercise and Sport Science by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. The purpose of the center, which reflects the excellent reputation of the department, is to serve as a catalyst for maintaining faculty and curricular vitality while expanding the scope of comprehensive services provided to professionals in Wisconsin and throughout the nation. General goals are to provide in service and expertise in emerging content areas and technology to physical educators and students in professional preparation programs; modify undergraduate and master’s curricula to incorporate recent trends and projected professional needs and expand research and public service components with special emphasis on assessment.

 

A three-dimensional professional preparation model was developed with the following foci: (1) enhancing life span motor development; (2) promoting the major purposes of professional preparation in physical education — prevention of injury or illness, skill enhancement, meaningful active living, and rehabilitation; and (3) developing instruments for assessment of performance and programs. Additional emphasis is placed on the importance of movement of young children and on age-related changes in active, older adults to develop and maintain efficient movement throughout the lifespan. The professional preparation programs within the Department of Exercise and Sport Science prepare graduates to assist individuals of all ages in developing meaningful, active lifestyles. Improving the level of skill in a wide variety of activities and promoting effective movement patterns will result in more active and healthy individuals in our society. For additional information regarding the Center of Excellence in Physical Education, please contact: Department Chair, Exercise and Sport Science, Mitchell Hall, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 USA

 

Exercise and Sport Science Transfer Policy

Students transferring into the exercise and sport science programs must have a cumulative GPA of 2.50 or higher at the time of transfer.

 

Admission to Programs

All majors in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science have admission standards and retention and advancement standards. Students are advised to become aware of the application criteria for their major and may refer to program Web sites for the most detailed information regarding these criteria and procedures. Meeting minimum criteria does not guarantee admission, as the department programs have competitive admission processes.

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Athletic Training Major

(College of Science and Health) — 74 credits (84 total credits including interdisciplinary requirements): Professional requirements (74 credits): ESS 181, 182, 205, 206, 207, 283, 286, 287; 302, 303, 323, 349, 368, 378, 379, 386, 387, 450, 481, 483, 484, 485, 486; Interdisciplinary requirements (10 credits): BIO105*, HP 401, HPR 105*

 

* These courses may apply to the General Education requirements. May substitute BIO 103 for 105.

 

Additional Program Requirements

Admission

Admission to the athletic training program is competitive and not all who apply can be accommodated. Admission requires an application/selection process for entry into ESS 181. Enrollment in ESS 181 is limited to 35 candidates who will be considered for final selection into the program following completion of ESS 182. Ten to fourteen (10-14) of the 35 candidates are selected at the end of the two-semester experience to enter the CAATE accredited undergraduate program. Application deadline for enrollment in ESS 181 is February 1 for consideration for each fall semester. Application materials may be obtained from the program Web site. Notification of acceptance into ESS 181 will be made by approximately April 1.

 

Students accepted to the athletic training educational program after the observational year may not participate in intercollegiate athletics secondary to scheduling conflicts with clinical and field experiences required in the educational program.

 

Consideration for selection into ESS 181 is based on the following criteria:

1. Acceptance into the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse;

2. Cumulative high school/university GPA;

3. GPA in science and sports medicine related course work;

4. SAT or ACT scores and rank in class;

5. Strength of student’s athletic training commitment as reflected in letters of recommendation;

6. Previous athletic training/sports medicine experience, extracurricular activities and leadership experience.

7. Evaluation of application by selection committee.

 

Retention and Advancement

Students admitted into the athletic training education program must maintain a minimum 2.75 cumulative grade point average (GPA), a minimum of a 3.0 GPA in all course work in the major, and have clinical evaluation scores of 3.0 or above (5.0 scale). Failure to meet any one of these retention criteria requires the student to be on a probationary status. If the student does not meet all criteria in two consecutive semesters, the student will be removed from the program.

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Exercise and Sport Science Major: Physical Education Teaching

(Teacher Certification programs) —60 credits of professional requirements: freshman year—ESS 112, 118, 121; sophomore year—ESS 205, 206, 207, 225, 231, 258, 261; junior year—ESS 302, 303, 310, 322, 325, 367; senior year—ESS 401, 412, 422, 423, 424; 12 credits of teacher education requirements: CI 403 student teaching practicum; 3 credits of statutory requirements: PSY 370. Total credits: 78-81. 

 

Note: Physical Education Teacher certification majors and minors are required to take BIO 103* or 105* or MIC 100*, and HPR 105* to meet prerequisites requirements for advanced courses. It is recommended that all incoming freshman wishing to major in exercise and sport science-physical education teacher certification enroll in ESS 112 and 118 during their first year at UW-L.

 

Students should refer to policies identified in the School of Education web page. These policies apply to students in all teacher certification programs. The School of Education Web site has additional information.

 

Additional Program Requirements

Admission

Admission to the physical education teacher education (PETE) program is competitive and successful completion of application requirements does not guarantee admission into the PETE program. Students who wish to be considered for acceptance into the program will be evaluated using the following criteria: physical fitness assessment reflection, grade point average in foundation courses (ESS 112, 118, 225, BIO 103 or 105 or MIC 100, HPR 105); 2.75 combined cumulative GPA (including transfer grade points), passage of all parts of the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST), K-12 leadership involvement and reflection, a satisfactory interview with PETE admission committee members, and a background check. Students are allowed to apply for PETE admission twice during their academic career at UW-L. Course substitutions may be authorized by the program director. Curriculum changes may result in a revision of courses and other criteria used as admission requirements.


Retention and Advancement

Students admitted into the PETE program must maintain a 2.75 grade point average, and must successfully complete portfolio requirements. In order to enroll in student teaching and clinical courses, students must have earned and maintained a 2.75 combined cumulative GPA and a 2.75 GPA in the major, minor, concentration and professional course work. Passing scores for the PRAXIS II Subject Assessment are required in each certification area prior to entering student teaching.

 

Aquatics and First Aid Certification

Exercise and sport science-teaching majors must possess a current Water Safety Instructor (WSI) and American Red Cross First Aid or equivalent agency certification prior to student teaching.

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Exercise and Sport Science Major: Exercise Science Emphasis

(College of Science and Health) — 69 credits for the Fitness Track, 51 credits for the Pre-Professional Track.

 

Core classes required for all ESS-Exercise Science Emphasis Students (30 credits): ESS 100 (6 courses/1 cr. each; may include ESS 116), ESS 201, 207, 281, 302, 303, 320, 323, 368, 446.

 

Fitness Track

  1. Required Courses (39 credits): ESS 205 and 206, or BIO 312 and 313; ESS 309, 344, 355, 403, 411, 443, 447, 449, 450, CST 260 or ENG 307, and MKT 309.  

Pre-Professional Track

  1. Required Courses (12 credits): ESS 383, BIO 312, BIO 313, CHE 460   

  2. CSAH College Curriculum (9 credits): CHM 104, PHY 104

  3. Students must complete a minor (or 2nd major) from any college or an additional 18 credits at the 300-400 level outside of ESS (not including internship credit)

  4. Students must complete at least 40 credits in the 300-400 level range

General Education Requirements

Exercise and Sport Science majors with the Exercise Science Emphasis are required to take HPR 105.  Students that select the Fitness Track must also take BIO 103 or BIO 105 or MIC 100. Students that select the Pre-Professional Track must also take BIO 105, and a second BIO or MIC course not including BIO 312 or 313 (MIC 100 is recommended), CHM 103, any psychology course (PSY 100 recommended), any sociology course (SOC 225 recommended), MTH 145, a second math course at 150 level or higher or CS 101 or CS 120, and PHY 103. Additional General Education courses must also be selected to complete all category requirements and to meet the university minimum requirement of 48 total credit hours.  

 

Additional Program Requirements

Admission

Admission to the Exercise Science Emphasis is competitive and not all who apply may be accommodated. From those applying each year, approximately 50 will be admitted into the Exercise Science Emphasis. Admission and retention process:

  1. To be considered for admission, the student must have completed at least 30 semester credits, including General Education credits and pre-admission courses (BIO 103 or 105 or MIC 100 and HPR 105) with a grade of at least “C” in each of these courses and a cumulative GPA of 2.75.

  2. Applications are due October 1 to be considered for admission to the program spring semester or February 1 to be considered

for admission to the program for fall semester. All candidates must meet academic requirements, physical fitness standards and professional and personal qualifications and be approved by the Fitness Advisory Board. Consideration for selection is based on the following criteria: a) cumulative and major GPA; b) fitness evaluation; c) professional site visitations/observations; d) extra-curricular experiences related to the emphasis; e) writing skills; and f) interview.    

 

Retention and Advancement

  1. Once admitted, a 2.75 GPA (cumulative and major) must be maintained and a “C” grade or better must be earned in all required and elective major courses for retention in the program. Students whose GPA falls below 2.75 will be placed on probation for one semester. Failure to achieve a 2.75 GPA (cumulative and major) by the end of the probation semester will result in ineligibility to continue in the program.

  2. To be admitted to ESS 450 Internship, students must achieve a 2.75 cumulative and major GPA and have successfully completed all program course work.

For complete details regarding application procedures, contact the Exercise Science Program Director in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science.

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Exercise and Sport Science Major: Sport Management Emphasis

(College of Science and Health) — 62 credits - Required courses (59 credits): ESS 115, 205, 206, 320, 407, 410, 421, 432, 445, 447, 448, 449, 450 (12 credits); ACC 221; MGT 308; MKT 309; CST 260 or ENG 307; ECO 320. Electives (three credits) selected from: ESS 201, 281, 302, 303, 323, 349, 368, 442; FIN 355; BUS 205, 305; MGT 385; MKT 365, 444; REC 305.

 

General Education Requirements

Exercise and sport science majors with sport management emphasis are required to take BIO 103 or 105 or MIC 100, CS 101, ECO 110 and HPR 105 to meet prerequisites for advanced courses and/or for admission to the emphasis. These courses will also fulfill General Education requirements.

 

Additional Program Requirements              

Admission

Admission to the sport management emphasis is competitive and not all who apply may be accommodated. From those applying each year, approximately 30 will be admitted into the sport management emphasis. To be considered for admission to the exercise and sport science major sport management emphasis, the student must have:

  1. Completed or be “in progress” of completing at least 30 semester credits, including General Education credits and the three preadmission core courses (BIO 103 or 105 or MIC 100; CS 101; ESS 115) with a grade of at least “C” in each of these core courses.

  2. A cumulative GPA of 2.75.

  3. Applications are due October 1 to be considered for admission to the program spring semester or February 1 to be considered for admission to the program for fall semester. All candidates must meet academic, professional involvement, and personal qualifications and be approved by the Sport Management Advisory Board. Consideration for selection is based on the following criteria: a) cumulative GPA; b) professional involvement; c) professional site visitations/observations/work experiences; d) word processing and writing skills; and e) interview.

Retention and Advancement

  1. Once admitted, a 2.75 GPA (cumulative and major) must be maintained and a “C” grade or better must be earned in all required and elective major courses for retention in the program. Students whose GPA falls below 2.75 will be placed on program probation for one semester. Failure to achieve a 2.75 GPA (cumulative and major) by the end of the probation semester will result in ineligibility to continue in the program.

  2. To be admitted to ESS 450 Internship, students must achieve a 2.75 cumulative and major GPA and have successfully completed all program course work.

  3. For complete details regarding application procedures, contact the Sport Management Program Director in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science.

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Adapted Physical Education Teaching Minor

(Exercise and Sport Science – Physical Education Teaching) — 24 credits – ESS 231, 233, 430, 436, 437, 439, SPE 424 and EDS 494. Teacher candidates participate in a variety of adapted physical education clinical experiences (with students who have disabilities) that are associated with program requirements and course work in the minor, including student teaching in adapted physical education (completed during regular student teaching). Teacher candidates who successfully complete the minor along with requirements of the physical education teacher education program are eligible to receive the Wisconsin Add-On Adapted Physical Education #860 (Early Childhood – Adolescence) license. In order to receive the add-on license, a teacher candidate must also be licensed to teach general physical education (WI #530 Early Childhood – Adolescence).

 

Additional Program Requirements

Admission

Admittance into the minor requires physical education teacher education program admission; a grade “BC” or higher in ESS 231; completion of required written application; and the approval of the coordinator of adapted physical education. Admission to the minor can occur during the same semester of admission to the PETE program or any semester thereafter.

 

Retention and Advancement

1. Earn a “C” grade or higher in all minor courses, except for ESS 439 in which a grade of “B” or higher must be attained.

2. Maintain a 2.75 GPA in all minor courses.

3. Perform acceptably in clinical education and all related program requirements.

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Concentration in Coaching Competitive Athletics

(All colleges) — 24 credits (Not eligible for Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction certification) Required courses (16-18 credits): ESS 100 Strength Training or ESS 368; ESS 201, 205, 206, 281, 348, 349, 451 (2-3 credits); elective courses (6-8 credits) selected from: ESS 130, 207, 249, 302, 303, 323, 348, 410, 451, HED 409, 474.

 

The exercise and sport science department incorporates a significant amount of writing through the required courses instead of identifying particular courses as writing emphasis courses. Students who complete the ESS major, including any of the emphases, will fulfill the university writing emphasis requirement.

 

 

+ above a course number indicates a

General Education course.

 

 

ESS        100         Cr. 1

Physical Activities

A program of instruction to enhance participation in physical activities throughout one’s lifetime. The primary emphases for specific activities may include acquiring a knowledge base, learning new skills and/or refining skills, developing components of health-related fitness, enhancing affective skills. Repeatable for credit. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

+

ESS        104         Cr. 2

Dance Appreciation

This course attempts to develop an awareness and appreciation of the role of dance in human society through the study of its purposes, functions and various forms. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

+

HPR       105         Cr. 3

Creating a Healthy, Active Lifestyle

This course will focus on the knowledge and skills necessary for developing and maintaining a healthy, physically active lifestyle throughout one’s lifespan. Major issues directly affecting one’s health such as physical fitness, movement skills and activities, health promotion and disease prevention, the effective use of leisure and content in various wellness topical areas will be included. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

HPR/HP 106        Cr. 2

Introduction to Health Related Careers

Overview of health related professions in the health delivery system. Course will include educational and professional aspects of a broad range of health related careers. General topics will include an overview of the health related delivery system, health reform, legal and ethical issues, and professionalism. An interdisciplinary approach will be utilized to present specific information on individual health related professions. (Cross-listed with HP; may only earn credit in HPR or HP.) Offered Spring.

 

ESS        112         Cr. 4

Fundamentals of Movement

This course is designed to provide an understanding of the development of fundamental movement skills and movement concepts related to the elementary physical education student. Emphasis is placed on attaining knowledge of developmentally appropriate practices for the elementary physical education student. This course includes fundamental movements, educational games, and educational dance. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        113         Cr. 1

Basic Swimming

This course is open to Exercise and Sport Science majors only. Emphasis is placed on the improvement of the individual student’s swimming skill. Course content ranges from the non-swimmer level through American Red Cross intermediate skill level. Offered occasionally.  

 

ESS        115         Cr. 2

Orientation to Exercise and Sport Science

This course is designed to introduce the Exercise and Sport Science major to the profession of exercise and sport science and to give insight into the many diverse careers that can result from studying the discipline. Background knowledge of the foundations of the profession and the selection of a career path that reflects personal interests and abilities will be the focus. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        116         Cr. 2

Water Safety Instruction

This course is designed to cover the basic components for certification by the ARC including infant and preschool, Longfellow’s Whale Tales, progressive instruction, safety training for swim coaches and basic and emergency water safety. Upon successful completion of this course the student will be certified to instruct aquatics by the American Red Cross. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        117         Cr. 2

Health Related Fitness Activities in Physical Education

This course is designed to help students start to understand health-related fitness self-efficacy promotion through lifetime physical activity applications. Students will focus on exercise prescription design and goal setting strategies linked to skill development in fitness related activities. This activity-based course will focus on fitness principle applications as they relate to cardiovascular, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition activities. Pedagogical strategies and the Personalized System of Instruction model will be introduced for health related fitness activity integration. Lect. 1, Lab 2. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS    118                      CR. 2

Introduction to the Physical Education Teaching Profession

This course is designed to introduce students to the physical education teaching profession. The course presents the role that physical education plays in the overall development and education of children. Students focus on learning national standards and guidelines related to the physical education teacher profession. Emphasis is on developing the ability to describe, discuss and reflect upon issues in the physical education teaching profession, including student characteristics, teaching responsibilities, professional vocabulary and concepts, advocacy, current issues, and historical factors. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        121         Cr. 2

Adventure Theory for Physical Educators

This course presents the concepts of adventure education including cooperative and initiative games. The students will learn to use and implement a ropes course as a classroom for different age groups and diverse populations, especially as applied to physical education programs. Much of the emphasis of the adventure theory will be introducing the teaching and methodology of adventure education. This course introduces undergraduate students to teaching adventure education in elementary and secondary physical education programs in the schools. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        130         Cr. 1-2

Officiating Athletics

Provides a general background of the rules, interpretations and mechanics of officiating athletic events at various levels of competition. Knowledge in this area may lead to WIAA certification in the following sports: basketball, baseball, football, gymnastics, swimming, track and field, volleyball, and wrestling. Repeatable for credit. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        181         Cr. 3

Introduction to Sports Medicine

An introductory course designed to provide insight into the areas of sports medicine. Fundamental emergency care procedures and wrapping/taping techniques are taught. Students are exposed to athletic training room procedures, accident forms, maintenance of equipment and use of athletic training materials. Enrollment in the course is dependent on an application/selection process. See requirements for athletic training emphasis. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        182         Cr. 3

Prevention and Emergency Care for Athletic Trainers

This course is designed to provide knowledge and experience in prevention and emergency care procedures. Students will learn emergency care procedures through mock practice. They will be exposed to advanced taping techniques, equipment selection, and fitting, spineboarding, and receive certification in CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and in First Aid. Lect. 2, Lab.2. Prerequisite: ESS 181. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        201         Cr. 1

Safety, First Aid and CPR

Instruction and practice in proper first aid principles, procedures and emergency care including CPR training. American National Red Cross Standard First Aid certification and CPR certification will be awarded to those students who meet certification requirements. One lecture/lab for seven weeks. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        205         Cr. 3

Human Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise Science I

This course is designed to cover the structure and function of the muscular, nervous skeletal, sensory, and integumentary systems. Emphasis will be placed on the musculoskeletal system during the laboratory component. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or 105 or MIC 100. Not open for credit to students who have had BIO 312. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        206         Cr. 3

Human Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise Science II

This course is designed to cover the maintenance of homeostasis through study of the structure and function of the autonomic nervous system, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, endocrine, reproductive, digestive and renal systems. Metabolism will also be discussed. It will also cover metabolism and fluid/electrolyte balance. Not open for credit for students who have had BIO 313. Prerequisite: ESS 205. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        207         Cr. 3

Human Motor Behavior

This course is an investigation into the nature of human motor development, motor control, and motor learning. Topics will be approached from a constraints perspective, focusing on the interaction among the individual, the environment, and the task. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: ESS PE majors must have ESS 112. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        209         Cr. 2

Strength Training Clinical I

A course designed to provide practical experience in the supervision of a strength center. Students will have the opportunity to instruct proper lifting technique, assist with the assessment of strength, power and speed, and learn facility and equipment maintenance. Lab. 4. Prerequisites: acceptance into strength and conditioning concentration; ESS 205 or 206 (can be concurrent). Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        225         Cr. 3

Introduction to Physical Education Teaching Methodology

This course focuses on teaching methodology in physical education. Students will complete observational clinical experiences at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Emphasis will be placed on developing knowledge, skills, and dispositions related to instruction, management, lesson planning, assessment, and reflection. Students will complete Benchmark I for the electronic portfolio process. Prerequisite: ESS 118 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        231         Cr. 3

Introduction to Adapted Physical Education

This course is designed to introduce future teachers to the process of teaching physical education to PK-12 students with disabilities. Course content includes general characteristics of selected disabilities and how these disabilities impact a person’s movement potential and performance, the federal and state laws pertaining to the education of PK-12 students with disabilities, the process of special education referral and placement of students in the least restrictive environment, appropriate physical education teaching methods to use for inclusive instructional settings, adapted teaching techniques for motor development, health-related fitness, sport/recreational skills, and aquatics; and behavior management techniques. In addition, all students are required participate in the UW-La Crosse Motor Development Program conducted on Thursday evenings for approximately 25 clinical education hours for the semester. Lect. 2, Lab 3. Prerequisite: ESS 225 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        233         Cr. 2

Teaching Methods in Adapted Aquatics

This course focuses on strategies and techniques for teaching persons who are disabled in an aquatic setting. Emphasis is placed on program and teacher effectiveness. Two-hour lab required. Students are expected to have intermediate level swimming skills. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: ESS 231 or RTH 326. Priority enrollment will be given to students admitted to the adapted physical education minor. Offered Fall, Summer.

 

ESS        249         Cr. 2

Youth Sport Issues

An investigation of how youth sport programs can provide a healthy experience for participants. Concepts dealing with when to teach sport techniques and the physical, psychological and social implications of athletic experiences will be covered. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        258        Cr. 3

Teaching Activities I

An activity-based course focused on skills and knowledge related to team, individual and leisure activities for children in grades 3-12. There will be two team, two individual and two leisure activities selected from the following activities: team (soccer, basketball, ultimate frisbee, field games speedball, speedaway, gator ball), individual (badminton, bowling), leisure (yoga, pilates, fitness walking) Prerequisite: ESS 225. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS/PSY/WGS 259            Cr. 1

Girls and Women in Sport

An introduction to the involvement of girls and women with sport. Topics include a historical perspective on women’s sport participation, cultural images of women athletes, physiological and psychological benefits of sport participation as well as negative correlates, teaching and coaching implications of current research, Title IX, and recreation/leisure approaches to physical activity. (Cross-listed with PSY and WGS; may only earn credit in ESS, PSY, or WGS.) Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        261         Cr. 2

Educational Gymnastics

This course prepares the student to safely plan and conduct an educational gymnastics curriculum through the study of jumping and landing, balance, hanging and swinging, and rolling and transfer of weight activities. Emphasis is on appropriate progressions, safety procedures, proper mechanics, and sequencing of skills, methodology, fitness and games within a gymnastics environment and error analysis on a variety of gymnastics apparatus. Course will include 4-6 clinical hours with school children. Lect. 1, Lab 2. Prerequisite: ESS 112. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        281         Cr. 2

Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries

Gives students who are interested in inter-scholastic athletics part of the necessary background to become a qualified coach or director. This course includes: common injuries occurring as a result of participating in athletics and physical education activities; procedures and techniques in the prevention and care of injuries; and the understanding of the coaches’ and teachers’ roles in the care of injuries. Prerequisites: ESS 201 and 205. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        286         Cr. 2

Athletic Training Clinical I

A course designed to provide clinical experiences in an athletic training setting. Students will have the opportunity to gain competency in skills that have been previously instructed and practiced in classroom and laboratory settings. Prerequisites: ESS 181; acceptance to the athletic training program. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        287         Cr. 2

Athletic Training Clinical II

A course designed to provide clinical experiences in an athletic training setting. Students will have an opportunity to gain competency in upper extremity evaluation skills, and management of pathologies of the upper extremity, trunk/thorax and the head and neck that are common in athletics. Prerequisite: ESS 286. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        302         Cr. 3

Physiology of Exercise

Applied physiology: a study of how normal physiological function (homeostasis) is altered, and subsequently restored, in response to various forms of stress (exercise and training). Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisites: BIO 103 or 105; a grade of “C” or better in ESS 206 or BIO 313. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        303         Cr. 2-3

Biomechanics

Biomechanics emphasizes the investigation and application of mechanical principles to the study of human motion and the motion of sport objects. Students will learn systematic approaches for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human body as it engages in motor activities. Laboratory sessions are required for students that select the three-credit option. Prerequisite: grade of “C” or better in ESS 205 or BIO 312. Recommended: MTH 150, 151, or 207. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        309         Cr. 2

Strength Training Clinical II

A course designed to provide experience in the supervision of a strength center. Students will have the opportunity to instruct proper lifting technique, assess strength, power and speed, maintain the strength facility, and assist with the design of lifting and conditioning programs. Lab 4. Prerequisite: ESS 209. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        310         Cr. 2

Teaching Outdoor Activities in Physical Education

This course will focus on teaching physical educators how to implement outdoor activities as part of the K-12 physical education curriculum. Included are such activities as hiking, backpacking, climbing, skiing, primitive camping, canoeing, snowshoeing, and biking. Common pedagogical knowledge and skills which cut across activities will be emphasized. Students will participate in the scope and sequence for skill development in at least two outdoor activities, and plan the scope and sequence for one additional outdoor activity. Open to exercise and sport science majors only. Lect. 4, Lab. 1. Prerequisites: ESS 121, 225. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        320         Cr. 3

Field Experience in Exercise Science or Sport Management

Practical experience in an exercise science and/or sports management setting or formal observation in a clinical setting. Experiences provided may include: sports event facilitation, budget preparation and monitoring, preparing contracts, checking eligibility, marketing and promotion, exercise leadership, assisting with fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Prerequisite: acceptance into the ESS major — Exercise Science or Sport Management Emphasis. Repeatable for credit ­— maximum six. Offered Fall, Spring and Summer.  

 

ESS        321         Cr. 2

Evaluation in Health Education and Physical Education

An introductory course in the meaning and application of measurement, tests, elementary statistical procedures and evaluation in physical education. Prerequisite: admission into teacher education program.

 

ESS        322         Cr. 4

Elementary Methods, Assessment and Clinical in Physical Education

A junior level pedagogy course focused on developmentally appropriate methodology and assessment for the elementary physical education setting. Emphasis is placed on developing the capability to apply an understanding of planning for learning for the K-5 student. This course includes completion of a clinical experience in the elementary physical education setting. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: ESS 207 or concurrent enrollment; admission to the physical education teacher education program. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        323         Cr. 3

Nutrition and Sport

Basic principles of human nutrition and nutritional needs for athletes and/or active populations. Issues discussed include ergogenic aids, carbohydrate loading/manipulation, eating disorders, and protein supplementation. Practical application will include dietary analysis and composition for people in various activities and conditions. Prerequisite: ESS 302 or NUT 200. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        324         Cr. 1-3

Independent Study in Exercise and Sport Science

Provides students with supervised study in a specific area of interest in their exercise and sport science academic program. Prerequisite: consent of instructor and department chair. Repeatable for credit — maximum nine credits or maximum of three courses. Offered Fall, Winter, Spring and Summer.

 

ESS        325         Cr. 4

Secondary Methods, Assessment and Clinical in Physical Education

A junior level pedagogy course focused on developmentally appropriate methodology and assessment for the secondary physical education setting. Emphasis is placed on developing the capability to apply an understanding of planning for learning for the 6-12 student. This course includes completion of a clinical experience in the secondary physical education setting. Prerequisite: admission into the physical education teacher education program. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: ESS 207. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        326         Cr. 2

Clinical Experience in Teaching Physical Education II

Students will practice teaching with close supervision of both the university instructor and the elementary/middle school cooperating teacher. The students will learn to use objective analysis instruments, videotaping, computer analysis techniques, and intervention processes. Students will have a minimum of 48 hours of public school clinical experiences. Must be taken concurrently with ESS 321, 322, 325. Prerequisite: admission into teacher education.

 

ESS        327         Cr. 2

Physical Education for the Elementary Classroom Teacher

Students participate in lecture and laboratory experiences to gain and practice skills in teaching elementary physical education. Applied teaching experience occurs at a local school allowing for implementation of appropriate skill progression, movement education management and a variety of curriculum options. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: EFN 210 and CI 211. For elementary education majors only. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        344         Cr. 3

Introduction to Fitness Assessment

The purpose of this course is to review the clinical and diagnostic approach to cardiovascular anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology, and to provide basic knowledge in evaluation, methodology and interpretation of fitness testing. Areas of emphasis will be population characteristics, participant screening and referral process, alternatives of fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: ESS 302;  acceptance into the ESS major — fitness emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        348         Cr. 2

Theory of Coaching (specific sports as listed)

Theory of coaching specific competitive sports. Coaching and directing youth, club, inter-scholastic and intercollegiate sports programs. Theory of coaching the following sports will be offered on a rotational basis: baseball/softball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field/cross country, volleyball, and wrestling. Prerequisites: junior standing; a competitive background in and fundamental knowledge of the sport is HIGHLY recommended. Repeatable for credit — maximum four. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        349/549                 Cr. 2

Psychology of Coaching Competitive Athletics

Aids the prospective coach to better understand the application of psychological concepts to the coaching of sports. Emphasis will be on the methods of improving the performance of athletes through a better understanding of the factors affecting teaching and learning in athletics. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        355        Cr. 3

Methods of Exercise Leadership

This course will cover the methodology of developing, teaching and leading sound exercise workouts for all levels of physiological fitness and for individual needs. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisites: ESS 302, 303; acceptance into the ESS major — fitness emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        367         Cr. 3

Teaching Activities II

An activity-based course focused on movement skills as they relate to children in grades 3-12 within team, individual and leisure activities. The main purpose is for the students to develop the knowledge of the basic skills and progressions related to each activity. There will be two team, two individual, and two leisure activities selected from, but not limited to, the following activities: team (softball, volleyball, team handball, flag football, ultimate frisbee), individual (golf, tennis), leisure (archery, cardio kickboxing, inline skating). Lab 6. Prerequisite: admission to the physical education teacher education program. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        368         Cr. 3

Strength Training Techniques and Programs

This course is designed to provide the student with a working knowledge of proper lifting and spotting technique, an understanding of the various types of equipment and modes of strength training, basic program design and implementation for special populations, and weight training for performance. Students will be taught to design and individualize a strength training program. Prerequisites: ESS 205 and 206 or BIO 312 and BIO 313; ESS 100 Strength Training recommended. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        378         Cr. 4

Musculoskeletal Assessment of the Lower Body

This course is designed for individuals seeking certification from the Board of Certification (BOC). Content addresses observation and evaluation techniques for musculoskeletal injuries to and conditions of the lower body. Students must integrate anatomical structures and physiological principles to provide a basis for critical decision-making in an injury management environment. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Prerequisites: ESS 286 and 379. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        379         Cr. 4

Musculoskeletal Assessment of the Upper Body

This course is designed for individuals seeking certification from the Board of Certification (BOC). Content addresses observation and evaluation techniques for musculoskeletal injuries to and conditions of the upper body. Students must integrate anatomical structures and physiological principles to provide basis for critical decision-making in an injury management environment. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Prerequisites: ESS 181; admission to the athletic training program. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        383         Cr. 3

Clinical Pathology for Exercise Science

Course designed to introduce students to the pathology of injuries and illnesses of the body systems. Topics included are categorized into physiological responses to trauma, disease, inflammatory responses and autoimmune/immunodeficiency responses to various diseases. Prerequisite: acceptance to the ESS-Exercise Science Emphasis or Athletic Training program. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.

 

ESS        386         Cr. 2

Athletic Training Clinical III

A course designed to provide clinical experience in an athletic training setting. Students will have an opportunity to gain competency in lower extremity evaluation skills, and management of pathologies of the lower extremity that are common in athletics. Prerequisite: ESS 287. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        387         Cr. 2

Athletic Training Clinical IV

A course designed to provide clinical experience in an athletic training setting. Students will have an opportunity to gain competency in utilization of therapeutic modalities for the management of pathologies that are common in athletics. Prerequisite: ESS 386. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        401         Cr. 2

Teaching Dance

Theory and methods of teaching age-appropriate dance activities for students in elementary and secondary physical education. Emphasis will be on skill progressions, teaching models and methods, and assessment. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: admission into the physical education teacher education program. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        402         Cr. 1

Advanced Activities

A program of opportunities to enhance advanced teaching knowledge and participation in a self-selected physical activity. The course will go beyond the knowledge, skills and strategies that may be offered at the introductory level. These opportunities may include, but not be limited to, participation in advanced activity classes offered both on and off campus, participation in advanced certification programs, intern teaching experiences in the student’s area of expertise. Repeatable for credit in different activities — maximum three. Only one credit counts toward the PETE major. Prerequisites: ESS 321, 322, 325, 326. Pass/Fail grading.

 

ESS        403         Cr. 2

Advanced Strength Training Applications and Techniques

This course presents advanced strength training and conditioning theory and practice. Designed primarily for students specializing in strength and conditioning, the course explores advanced periodization models and their utilization, mastery and analysis of Olympic lifts, plyometric programming, ergogenic aids (identification, legal implications, nutritional alternatives,) facility design, and special population needs. Prerequisites: ESS 302, 303, 368. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        407         Cr. 3

Sport Management and Society

This course is designed to provide the foundation for an understanding of the ethical, social, cultural, and psychological aspects for the operation of programs in athletics, sports, physical education and fitness. The student will be able to identify current social, cultural, and ethical issues and problems and the potential solutions to these problems. Pre-requisites: junior standing; admission to ESS-Sport Management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        409         Cr. 2

Strength Training Clinical III

A course designed to provide practical experience in management of a strength center. Students will have the opportunity to instruct proper lifting technique, assess strength, power and speed, maintain the strength facility, design lifting and conditioning programs, and assist with the supervision and instruction of junior staff members. Lab. 4. Prerequisites: ESS 302, 303, 309, 368. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        410         Cr. 2

Legal Implications of Sport and Activity

This course addresses the legal aspects for the operation and administration of sports programs, competitive athletic programs, and community and commercial fitness programs.. Prerequisite: ESS 201. Must be accepted into the ESS major-fitness or sport management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        411         Cr. 2

Strength and Conditioning Educator Training

This course is a capstone experience for students specializing in strength and conditioning. Content includes exercise physiology and biomechanics, nutrition and ergogenic aids, testing and evaluation, exercise techniques, program design, and organization and administration of a strength and conditioning facility. Prerequisite: ESS 403 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        412         Cr. 3

Issues and Philosophies in Teaching Physical Education

This course is designed to provide student teachers with an opportunity for communication and discussed focused on student teaching experiences. Course emphasis is placed on development of teaching competencies as outlined by the beginning teacher standards. Prerequisites: completion of all course work required to student teach; successful completion of PRAXIS II exam. Taken concurrently with Student Teaching. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        421         Cr. 3

Sport Operations Management/Event and Venue Management

This course is designed to introduce students to principles and procedures for preparing, planning, operating, managing, and evaluating event and venue in sports settings. Students will gain a greater understanding of event and venue management and the total operation of sports organizations. Pre-requisites: junior standing; admission to ESS-Sport Management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        422         Cr. 3

Teaching Healthy, Active Lifestyles

This course provides the pre-service physical education student with the pedagogical skills necessary to promote, advocate for, and empower K-12 students to become lifelong learners who value physical activity. The emphasis of this course will focus on health related fitness concepts and applications related to exercise prescription, nutritional planning, exercise adherence, and fitness skill development for students in the K-12 setting. Physical education majors will also explore curricular and instructional models that promote and foster health and fitness applications to K-12 students. Prerequisites: admission into the physical education teacher education program; ESS 302 or concurrent enrollment. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        423         Cr. 2

Individual and Social Factors in Physical Activity

This course provides the essential theoretical foundations and practical applications of the psychological concepts involved in living a physically active lifestyle. Content will include working with individuals on motivation, anxiety/ stress reduction, self concepts, and character development; working with groups for cohesion, cooperation and competition, conflict resolution, and goal achievement; and development of personal skills and knowledge to achieve desired goals in physical activity environments. Prerequisite: admission to an exercise and sport science major program. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        424         Cr. 4

Curriculum Development and Administration of Elementary/Secondary Physical Education Programs

Senior level experience designed to provide an understanding of the curriculum development process through application. Selection of activities based on national and state standards, community resources, growth and developmental characteristics and facilities. Includes content and experiences related to PK-12 program development including scope and sequence, program evaluation, scheduling, advocacy activity and co-curricular/outside school activities. The administrative component will include principles related to gender equity, risk management, budgeting,

collaboration, and program accountability. Prerequisites: admission into the physical education teacher education program; senior standing. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        430/530                 Cr. 4

Disability and Physical Activity Implications

The etiology and effects of selected physical, sensory, mental, and emotional disorders. Content includes the full range of each category — mild through severe/profound and the role of physical education in the educational program. Students in the adapted physical education minor or graduate program are given priority enrollment, Prerequisite: ESS 231 or RTH 326. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        432         Cr. 3

Financial Aspects of Sport

This course is designed to study financial management principles including budget development, fundraising, and economic impact for use in the administration of sport and athletic programs. In addition, emphasis will be placed on sources of revenue and expense for sport organizations and their use in sport management. The student will understand why budget and finance in sport is a critical component of all sports related industries. Prerequisites: junior standing; admission to ESS-Sport Management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        435/535                 Cr. 2

Sports for Persons with Disabilities

This course provides an introduction to appropriate instruments and testing strategies necessary for assessing the gross motor development and health-related physical fitness levels of persons with disabilities. Students learn how to administer, interpret, and use the results of motor assessments to develop individualized education program plans that are utilized in either adapted or general physical education programs for students with disabilities. Prerequisite: ESS 231. Priority enrollment will be given to students admitted to the adapted physical education minor. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        436/536                 Cr. 3

Assessment and Program Evaluation in Adapted Physical Education

This course provides an introduction to appropriate instruments and testing strategies necessary for assessing the gross motor development and health-related physical fitness levels of persons with disabilities. Students learn how to administer, interpret, and use the results of motor assessments to develop individualized education program plans that are utilized in either adapted or general physical education programs for students with disabilities. Priority enrollment will be given to students admitted to the adapted physical education minor. Prerequisite: ESS 231. Offered Spring and Summer. 

 

ESS        437/537                 Cr. 3

Teaching and Service Delivery Models in Adapted Physical Education

This course focuses on adapted physical education teaching strategies and service delivery models in PK-12 settings. Instructional programming and best practices in early childhood, elementary, middle/secondary, and transitional programs for students with disabilities in adapted physical education are covered. Emphasis is on collaboration among professional service providers such as special educators, regular physical educators, and related service personnel. (e.g. occupational, physical, and recreational therapists), as well as health and other community agency staff. School psychology visits and practical teaching are included, along with guest presentations on related disciplines and program. Prerequisite: admission to the adapted physical education minor. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        439         Cr. 3

Teaching Methods and Internship in Adapted Physical Education

Students are provided practical teaching and supervision opportunities to enhance their skills in planning, implementing, and evaluating adapted physical education programs for children and youth with a variety of disabilities. Emphasis is also placed on effective staff collaboration and consultation as well as teacher and program supervision. A Thursday evening laboratory is required during fall and spring semesters. Lect. 2, Lab 3. Prerequisites: three of the following courses: ESS 233, 430, 436, 437. Offered Fall, Spring.  

 

ESS        442         Cr. 2

Aging and Physical Activity

The course will explore why and how physical activity must change to meet the modifications that occur to the human body with aging. The physiological and psychological status of an aging population will be presented, along with suggestions to address the physical activity needs of this growing group. Practical experience in both on and off campus sites. Prerequisites: ESS 302; must be accepted into ESS major-fitness emphasis or have a declared emphasis in gerontology. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        443         Cr. 3

Fitness Across the Lifespan

This course will explore why and how physical activity must change to meet the modifications that occur in the human body as it matures from childhood to older adulthood. Students will address the principles and procedures for designing physical fitness experiences for all ages. Lecture, practice, and field experiences are included. Prerequisites: ESS 302, 303; acceptance into the ESS Exercise Science emphasis or have a declared emphasis in Gerontology. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        445/545                 Cr. 3

Planning Facilities for Physical Activity and Sport

A study of planning techniques concerning facility development and maintenance for schools, athletic clubs, fitness centers and professional sport organizations. Prerequisite: acceptance to sport management emphasis or ESS graduate program. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        446         Cr. 3

Current Research and Trends in Exercise Science

A lecture/discussion-based course in which relevant and current research and industry trends are thoroughly reviewed and analyzed. Students are encouraged to take this course near the end of their careers as undergraduate students in the ESS-Exercise Science emphasis. Prerequisite: accepted in the ESS-Exercise Science Emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        447         Cr. 3

Administration in Fitness and Sport

The course will cover principles of administrative theory and practice in the fitness and sport industry, including general administrative functions, public relations, personnel, budget and finance, facility management, and evaluation techniques. Prerequisite: acceptance into the ESS major — either fitness emphasis or sport management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        448         Cr. 3

Promotion and Development of Fitness and Sport Programs

This course will provide understanding of and skill in the promotion process as it relates to advertising and public relations activities for the operation of programs in sport, physical education and fitness. Primary focus will be on the application of promotion principles to specific sport scenarios. Prerequisites: MKT 309; MGT 308; must be accepted into the ESS major-fitness or sport management emphasis. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        449         Cr. 1

Seminar in Fitness/Sports Management

An in-depth orientation to the required senior internship experience. Required course to be taken one semester prior to internship. Prerequisites: GPA of 2.75 (cumulative and major); acceptance into the ESS major-fitness or sport management emphasis; senior standing. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        450         Cr. 8 or 12

Exercise and Sport Science Internship

The internship is designed to be a terminal experience for students majoring in fitness or sport management (12 credits) emphases and athletic training (eight credits) with an intensive supervised practical work experience. Prerequisites: fitness/sport management: all course work for the appropriate major must be completed; a minimum cumulative and emphasis GPA of 2.75; athletic training: ESS 484. Pass/Fail grading for all emphases. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.  

 

ESS        451         Cr. 2-3

Practicum in Athletic Coaching

The practicum in athletic coaching is designed to be a terminal experience for students completing the concentration in Coaching Competitive Athletics. Students will be placed with department approved university or public/private school athletic teams to obtain practical coaching experience in the sport(s) of their choice. The practicum experience will be supervised by coaches of the assigned team and the director of the concentration in coaching competitive athletics. Prerequisite: completion of requirements in coaching concentration with the exception of ESS 368 and 404 and elective credits. Repeatable for credit in different sport(s) — maximum six. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        452/552 Cr. 2

Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

An in depth study of lifestyle principles as identified by Stephen Covey in the book 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Students will explore how to apply these principles as teachers and coaches personally and with peers, students and athletes. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        460/560                 Cr. 1-3

Exercise Science Clinical Forum

Visiting lecturers as well as university professors will address various topics related to exercise science. Repeatable for credit. Offered occasionally.

 

ESS        480/680                 Cr. 2

Injury Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation

Designed to assist the student in refinement of skills in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries occurring in a high activity environment. Special attention will be given to injury recognition and common injuries. Basic rehabilitation protocols will be reviewed in addition to conditions for referral. Prerequisite: teaching and/or coaching experience. Offered Fall, Spring.

 

ESS        481         Cr. 4

Therapeutic Modalities for Athletic Training

Introduction to the principles and therapeutic modalities used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries and to conditions and the role of rehabilitation in athletic training. Course is designed for students interested in taking the certification examination from the Board of Certification (BOC). Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: ESS 287 and 378. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        483         Cr. 3

Administration of Athletic Training Programs

A study and analysis of administrative policies involved in the management of an efficient athletic training program. Course is designed to provide information in program and strategic planning, evaluation of plans, record keeping, facility design and planning, budgeting and purchasing, inventory control, management of human resources, and governance structures in athletic training. Prerequisites: ESS 387 and 484. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        484         Cr. 4

Rehabilitation Techniques for Athletic Trainers

This course covers the knowledge and skills needed in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions seen by athletic trainers. Rehabilitation strategies are designed to utilize rehabilitation principles and functional activities to prepare patients for safe return to activity. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: ESS 386 and 481. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        485         Cr. 3

Current Readings and Research in Athletic Training

This course is designed to give students an overview of the research process in athletic training. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of building a research base in athletic training, the basics of developing a research study, protecting human subjects, presenting and publishing data, manuscripts review, and fundamentals of grant writing. Students will also review and discuss current published research in the field and give presentations pertaining to special topics not included in regular course work. Prerequisites: ESS 483 and 486. Offered Spring.

 

ESS        486         Cr. 2

Athletic Training Clinical V

A course designed to provide clinical experience in an athletic training setting. Students will have an opportunity to gain competency in rehabilitation and management of pathologies that are common in athletics. Prerequisite: ESS 387. Offered Fall.

 

ESS        499         Cr. 3

Seminar in Physical Education

The provision of intensified experiences in the solution of some individual or group problem. The utilization of some rudimentary research techniques receive marked attention, including the formulation of hypotheses, the design of study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Prerequisite: open to students of “honor” quality having senior class standing; a minimum 2.75 grade point average will be required. Offered occasionally.