BIOLOGY (BIO)

Professors: Brice, Claflin (Chair), Davis, Mowbray, Sandheinrich, Tyser, Weeks;
Associate Professors: Cooper, Gillis, Haro, Maher, Sutherland, Volk;
Assistant Professors: Abler, Galbraith, Gerber, Howard, Miskowski, Saros, Seebach;
Lecturers: Hanmer, Hoar, Nontelle, Ruhser.

Major and/or minor requirements differ for students in the College of Liberal Studies, College of Science and Allied Health, and the College of Business Administration from those in the School of Education and the College of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. See separate listings below.

HONORS PROGRAM IN BIOLOGY:

  1. Admission
    1. Junior Standing
    2. 15 credits in biology, including one 300-level course
    3. 3.25 cumulative grade point average in biology courses and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average
    4. Recommendation by two faculty members in student's major department
  1. Program
    1. Completion of a regular major program in biology or in microbiology
    2. BIO 452: Honors Seminar, 1 credit
    3. BIO 499: Problems in Biology, 2 credits
  1. Evaluation
    1. A cumulative 3.50 grade point average in the major at time of graduation and a 3.00 cumulative grade point average
    2. Distinguished performance on a project developed in BIO 499
    3. Presentation of the project developed in BIO 499 to a colloquium of faculty and students in the major department
  1. Methods of Implementation
    1. Admission
      1. Announcement of program in sophomore-level biology classes
      2. Application form
        1. academic record

b. reasons for wishing to participate

c. signatures of two faculty members in the major

    1. Program
      1. BIO 452: Honors Seminar will be offered one semester each year unless the numbers of students involved require more than one section
      2. BIO 499: Problems in Biology will be offered each semester
  1. Recognition
    1. Honors certificate
    2. Notation on permanent academic record

Note: A maximum of two credits from BIO 450, 479, 489 and 499 may be applied to the Biology major.

Biology Major
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 35 credits, including BIO 101, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 451, 461 and electives* in biology or microbiology. A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology major elective requirements, excluding BIO 499. (BIO 102, 106, 201, 413, and MIC 100, 371, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) Three semesters of chemistry, including organic CHM 300 (or 303, 304 and 305) and MTH 205 are required. BIO 452 may be taken in lieu of BIO 451 by Biology Honors Program students.

 

Biology Major: Aquatic Science Concentration
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 38 credits, including BIO 101, 204, 210, 306, 315, 341, 451 or 499, 461; MIC 230. Eleven credits of electives from the following: BIO 307, 405, 414, 419, 422, 447, 448, 460, 463, and 464; MIC 434. A minimum of 18 chemistry credits is required including: CHM 103, 104, 301, 300 (or 303, 304 and 305). A minimum of 8 credits of mathematics (MTH 175 or 207, 205) is also required. C-S 101 or equivalent skills is required.

Biology Major: Biomedical Science Concentration
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 38 credits, including BIO 101, 210, 306, 312, 313, 315, 424, 451 or 499, 461. Eleven credits of electives from the following: BIO 204, 307, 308, 406, 413, 428, 432, 435, 436, 443, 449, 463, 465, and 499; MIC 230, 361, 371, 420. A minimum of 22 chemistry credits is required including: CHM 103, 104, 301, 300 (or 303, 304 and 305), 325 or 417 and 418. A minimum of four credits of mathematics (MTH 205) and four credits of computer science (C-S 101) is also required.

Biology Major: Cellular and Molecular Biology Concentration
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 38 credits, including BIO 101, 204, 210, 306, 315, 435, 436, 451 or 499, 461; MIC 230. Eleven credits of electives from the following: BIO 303, 307, 308, 312, 313, 406, 412, 424, 428, 432, 443, 463, and 499; MIC 361, 420, 427. A minimum of 22 chemistry credits is required including: CHM 103, 104, 301, 300 (or 303, 304 and 305), 325 or 417, and 418. A minimum of four credits of mathematics is also required, including MTH 175 or 207. C-S 101 or equivalent skills is also required.

Biology Major: Environmental Science Concentration
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 38 credits, including BIO 101, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 419, 451 or 499, 461; MIC 230. Eight credits of electives from the following: BIO 310, 321, 341, 404, 405, 412, 414, 422, 429, 447, 448, 460, 463, and 464; MIC 350 and 434. Three semesters of chemistry, including Organic CHM 300 (or 303, 304 and 305) and eight credits of mathematics (MTH 175 or 207, 205) are required. A minimum of five-six credits of environmental science support courses are also required which include CHM 301, or GEO/ESC 250 and 481, or C-S 120 and MTH 305.

Biology Minor
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 24 credits, including BIO 101, 204, 210, and electives* in biology or microbiology including at least one course numbered 302 or above. (BIO 102, 106, 201, 413 and MIC 100, 371, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement, excluding BIO 499.

Biology Major
(Teacher certifiable programs in Health, Physical Education and Recreation; School of Education) - 35 credits including BIO 101, 204, 210, 306, 307, 315, 451, 461; MIC 230, and electives* in biology or microbiology. (BIO 102, 106, 201, 413, and MIC 100, 371, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology major elective requirement, excluding BIO 499. In addition to this sequence, GEO 200 is a statutory requirement; C-I 381, an administrative code requirement; and three semesters of chemistry, including organic CHM 300 (or 303, 304 and 305), and MTH 205 are required. BIO 429 - Evolution - is strongly recommended.

Biology Minor
(Teacher certifiable programs in Health, Physical Education and Recreation; School of Education) - 22 credits including BIO 101, 204, 210; MIC 230 or BIO 315, 306, 307 and one elective* in biology or microbiology if BIO 315 is elected. (BIO 102, 106, 201, 413, and MIC 100, 371, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) In addition to this sequence, GEO 200 is a statutory requirement; C-I 381 (Administrative Code Requirement) is required for certification of science majors. A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement, excluding BIO 499.

Secondary Broadfield Science Major
(Middle/Secondary Education). See description of this broad field major on p. 73.

Dual Degree Program in Chiropractic
Students spend three years (94 credits) at UW-La Crosse completing General Education requirements, Palmer College Core Requirements, and many of the requirements for a B.S. in Biology (Biomedical Science Concentration), with a 3.0 average. These students are then admitted to Palmer College for three years of study, leading to the Doctor of Chiropractic degree. Upon completion of this degree, Palmer credits transfer back to UW-La Crosse as 36.3 semester credits to satisfy all requirements for a B.S. in Biology: Biomedical Science. In six years, successful students earn both a Bachelor of Science degree (from UW-La Crosse) and a Doctor of Chiropractic degree. For complete degree requirements, see the pre-chiropractic adviser.

(See also Pigeon Lake Field Station for additional biology offerings, p. 28.)

 

+ above a course number indicates a General Education course.

+
BIO 101 Cr. 4
Introduction to Biological Sciences
An introduction to modern biology. Four major sections are covered; the cellular basis of life, the flow of energy, genetics and the continuity of life, and the diversity and ecological relationships of organisms. Themes developed throughout the course are processes used in scientific investigations, the history and dynamic nature of biology, and relationships between science, technology, and society. Lect. 3, Lab. 2.

+
BIO 102 Cr. 3
Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences
An intra-disciplinary approach to investigating current issues within the biological sciences. Specific topics within biology and microbiology under the general categories of health, medicine, environment, genetics, and industrial technology will be identified, described and characterized. The science underlying the issue will be explored and the potential impact (past and future) of applied scientific advances within the respective disciplines will be examined in depth. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Offered occasionally.

BIO 106 Cr. 3
Nature Study
A study of the common plants and animals of the area. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Offered occasionally.

BIO 201 Cr. 4
Human Biology
Biological principles and concepts relevant to the human body, society and the environment. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 101. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology. Offered occasionally.

BIO 204 Cr. 4
Plant Biology
An investigation of the general morphology and life patterns of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria - with emphasis on plants - and inquiry into their economic importance, ecology, evolution, growth and development. The importance of photosynthetic organisms will be a general theme throughout the course. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 101.

 

BIO 210 Cr. 4
Animal Biology
A phylogenetic survey of the animal kingdom beginning with single-celled organisms and ending with vertebrates. Innovation of form and function of each major taxonomic group will be discussed along with their ecology, natural history, distribution and relationship to humans. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 101.

BIO 302 Cr. 2
Local Trees and Shrubs
Identification of evergreen and deciduous woody plants, both native and cultivated. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204. Offered Sem. II every other year.

BIO 303 Cr. 4
Vertebrate Form and Function
Anatomy and physiology of the vertebrates with the rat as the basic study animal. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 101.

BIO 306 Cr. 3
Genetics
A comprehensive study of the basic principles of heredity, including Mendelian and Molecular Genetics. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 101 and a second biology course applicable to the major.

 

BIO 307 Cr. 3
Ecology
A study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of living organisms. The basic principles of ecology are presented in order to develop an understanding of the nature of these interactions at the individual, population and community levels of biological organization. Prerequisites: BIO 204 and 210.

BIO 308 Cr. 4
Vertebrate Embryology
Principles of animal development with special emphasis on the embryology of the frog, chick, pig and man. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303.

BIO 309/509 Cr. 3
Entomology
Morphology, physiology, classification, life histories, distribution, and economic importance of insects. Individual collections of local insects are required. Lect 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 312 Cr. 4
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
A comprehensive study of general physiological principles, membrane physiology, body fluid compartments, the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems and the special senses. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 101 and CHM 103.

BIO 313 Cr. 4
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
A comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, fluid/electrolyte balance, reproduction and the endocrine system. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 312.

BIO 315 Cr. 3
Cell Biology
A consideration of the physical and chemical properties of cells; examination of cell structure and their functions in the processes of energy conservation, photosynthesis, biosynthesis, and cell transport; study of cell division and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 101, one additional semester of biology, MTH 205, and a minimum of three semesters of chemistry through organic chemistry.

BIO 321 Cr. 3
Ornithology
Field identification and ecology of birds with emphasis on Wisconsin forms. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 341 Cr. 3
Limnology
This course includes fundamentals of aquatic ecology, with special reference to community ecology. Taxonomy, stratification and succession of organisms to be investigated. Energy traffic through aquatic ecosystems will also be investigated. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 101, one additional biology course, and one semester of chemistry. Offered Sem. I.

 

BIO 404/504 Cr. 3
Plant Taxonomy
Collection, identification, classification, and evolution of the vascular plants with emphasis on local flora. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.

BIO 405/505 Cr. 2
Aquatic Vascular Plants
Identification and collection of vascular plants of aquatic and marsh habitats with emphasis on adaptive morphology and ecology of local species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204.

BIO 406/506 Cr. 4
Parasitology
A survey of the major groups of animal parasites with regard to their taxonomy, morphology, life histories, host-parasite relationships, and economic importance. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303.

BIO 412/512 Cr. 4
Mycology
A survey of all the major groups of fungi of the fungal kingdom (and relatives) in terms of systematics, anatomy, morphology, ecology, physiology, genetics, evolutionary relationships, and human and plant pathology. Laboratory includes microscopic and macroscopic study of the fungi, as well as making a collection of cultures and of fungal reproductive structures (including mushrooms) from selected groups. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or MIC 230. Both are strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 413/513 Cr. 3
Medical Mycology
A study of the yeasts, molds, and actinomycetes that are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 412 or MIC 230. Not applicable to biology major; may be applied only to microbiology major and/or graduate program as well as an elective for the Biomedical Science Concentration. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 414/514 Cr. 3
Freshwater Invertebrate Zoology
Introduces the ecology and taxonomy of the metazoan, non-parasitic freshwater invertebrates. An extensive course designed to provide a foundation for taxonomic knowledge, and basic understanding of the biology and ecology of freshwater invertebrates for advanced students in aquatic and environmental sciences. Lectures will focus on ecology; labs on taxonomy and quantitative skills. A student reference collection and field trips will be required. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 210 or 341. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 417/517 Cr. 4
Animal Physiology
Consideration of how vertebrates solve physiological problems. Material covered includes: movement, information processing and sensory physiology, respiration, circulation of nutrients and oxygen, water and solute metabolism, thermoregulation, and chemical coordination. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 303 or BIO 312-313. Offered Sem. II.

 

BIO 419/519 Cr. 3
Quantitative Methods in Ecology
An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect.2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 307 or BIO 341. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 422/522 Cr. 3
Ichthyology
A study of the taxonomy, anatomy physiology, and ecology of fish, with emphasis on the fresh water fishes. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or 303.

BIO 423/523 Cr. 3
Fisheries Management
An introduction to the science of managing fish populations, fish communities, and anthropogenic impacts. The application and rationale of methods of manipulating fish populations will be investigated. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 307 or 341; BIO 422 strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.

BIO 424/524 Cr. 3
Endocrinology
A study of the anatomy and physiology of the glands comprising the endocrine system. Prerequisites: BIO 303 or BIO 312-313 or ESS 205-206.

BIO 428/528 Cr. 3
Animal Metabolism, Nutrition and Disease
An in-depth coverage of animal digestion, absorption and metabolism (biochemical pathways) of key nutrients, including protein, lipids, carbohydrates and essential vitamins and minerals. There will also be substantial consideration of energy balance, nutrient partitioning, life span dietary recommendations for humans, food nutrient content and the role of nutrient metabolism in disease. Prerequisite: BIO 313 or approval of instructor.

BIO 429/529 Cr. 3
Evolution
Consideration of the principles and the record of organic evolution of plants and animals. Lect. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 306. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 432/532 Cr. 2
Biology of Cancer
A survey of the current knowledge of cancer biology. The course will include lectures, readings and discussions on a wide range of cancer topics, including: characteristics of cancer cells, carcinogenesis, cancer genes, tumor classification, invasion, metastasis, impact of cancer on body functions, epidemiology, inheritance, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Prerequisites:BIO 303 or 313, and BIO 306 or MIC 416. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 433/533 Cr. 3
Radiation Biology
Applications and effects of nuclear radiation on biological systems. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 101, one additional course in biology, and two semesters of chemistry. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 435/535 Cr. 3
Molecular Biology
A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. The course will focus on the molecular aspects controlling biological processes.The impact of recombinant DNA technology on biotechnology and medicine will also be examined. Prerequisites: BIO 306 and 315, or MIC 416, and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry strongly recommended. BIO 436 is an optional laboratory which can be taken concurrently. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 436/536 Cr. 1
Molecular Biology Laboratory
A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Laboratory emphasis is on recombinant DNA technology, current techniques used to express recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells, computer based DNA analysis, macromolecular modeling using computers, and quantitative assay techniques. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 435. Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 435 must be taken concurrently. Offered Sem. I.

BIO 437/537 Cr. 3
Plant Growth and Development
Discussion of experiments and analysis of research data obtained from the living plant. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or equivalent or consent of instructor.

BIO 439/539 Cr. 3
Plant Anatomy
A detailed examination of plant structure and development as revealed with the light and electron microscopes. Primarily seed plants will be examined. Structure and development will be studied as a means by which plants cope with their ecology, evolution and function. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 204 or an equivalent general botany course. Offered Sem. II, alternate years.

BIO 443/543 Cr. 3
Molecular Mechanism of Disease and Drug Action
A survey of the leading non-infectious and non-cancerous diseases in the industrialized world. This course will explore the molecular mechanisms of disease, clinical symptomology, and pharmacological treatment. Students will be expected to conduct thorough research on a given disease and present their results in a poster session. Prerequisites: BIO 306, 313 and CHM 300 or 304. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 447/547 Cr. 3
Standard Methods and Quality Assurance of Water Analyses
This course will instruct students on the use of standard methods for analyses of selected biological, chemical, and physical constituents commonly included in water quality analyses. Quality assurance procedures, including Good Laboratory Practice Standards (GLPS) will be integrated into all activities. Materials covered include: principles of methods used; evaluation of precision, bias, and contamination; proper reporting and interpretation of results; and environ-mental sources and significance of constituents analyzed. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: BIO 204 or 210 or 303, MIC 230, and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 recommended. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 448/548 Cr. 4
Aquatic Toxicology
A study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and environmental legislation. Procedures for toxicity evaluation, experimental design and statistical analysis will be emphasized in the laboratory. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: four semesters of college biology, and three semesters of college chemistry. BIO 341 recommended. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 449/549 Cr. 3
Microtechnique and Electron Microscopy
Principles and techniques of specimen preparation and microscopy. Students develop proficiency in light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope operation and learn how to prepare biological specimens for viewing and resulting photographs for presentation. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: junior standing and BIO 315 or MIC 361. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.

BIO 450 Cr. 1-3
Internship in Biology
An academically relevant field experience in government, industry, business, or community agencies. Students must have their internships approved and be advised by the department. Students must be on their internship worksite during the semester for which they are registered for academic credit. Repeatable for credit - maximum 8. Pass/Fail grading.

BIO 451 Cr. 1
Seminar
Oral reports on selected topics in biology. Prerequisites: four semesters of biology, except BIO 106. Required of all biology majors not in Honors Program. Not repeatable for credit.

BIO 452 Cr. 1
Honors Seminar
Oral reports on selected topics in biology. Prerequisites: four semesters of biology, except BIO 106; acceptance into Honors Program.

BIO 460/560 Cr. 1-3
Symposium in Biology
Studies in biology of interest to specific groups. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Prerequisite: four semesters of biology. Repeatable for credit - maximum 6. Variable offerings - check registration schedules.

BIO 461 Cr. 1
Capstone in Biology/Microbiology
A seminar-style course designed for students to review and discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences and to assess their major in biology or microbiology. This course will cover basic concepts of resume and cover letter writing, quantitative skills, computer literacy, and current topics in biology and microbiology. Students are expected to actively participate in an assessment of their major, and participate in discussions on major issues and developments in the biological sciences. Prerequisite: senior standing; recommended for seniors in their final semester. Pass/Fail grading.

 

BIO 463/563 Cr. 3
Aquatic Animal Health
The study of pathogens of aquatic animals, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, amphibians, waterfowl and mammals. Sections on nutrition and toxicology are included. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: BIO 101, 210 or 303, and CHM 103; MIC 230 recommended. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 464/564 Cr. 3
Stream and Watershed Ecology
Introduces key concepts and theory pertinent to understanding and managing fluvial ecosystems (rivers and streams) and their watersheds. The course will emphasize rivers as large-scale physical and biological systems. Coursework includes a comparative case study of distinctive types of temperate, tropical, and polar rivers. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisites: BIO 341 or BIO 307. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 465/565 Cr. 2
Principles of Neurobiology
Principles of neurobiology at the cellular, molecular, and neura-circuit levels of organization. Several well-described systems will be examined in detail, providing a foundation for explorations of neural control processes, sensory systems, and the biological basis for learning and memory. Prerequisite: BIO 312. Offered Sem. II.

BIO 479 Cr. 1-2
Biology Laboratory Assistant
An opportunity to assist in the preparation and instruction of a biology laboratory. Students will be expected to assist in preparation of course materials, demonstrate proper techniques, and evaluate student performance. Lab. 2-6. Admission by instructor consent. Repeatable for credit - maximum 4. Pass/Fail grading.

BIO 489 Cr. 1
Independent Study in Biology
A directed reading project or job shadowing experience within the discipline but outside that offered through regularly scheduled courses. Under the direction of the supervising faculty member (and in coordination with mentoring professional for job shadowing experience). A written report is an expected outcome. Admission by instructor consent and department approval. Repeatable for credit - maximum 2.

BIO 490/590 Cr. 1-3
Current Topics in Biology Education
Biological researchers produce new discoveries almost daily. To better understand these new discoveries, it is important that students be exposed to some of the current technologies used in biological research. The purpose of this course is to train high school teachers in the current technologies used in biological research and to demonstrate the current approaches to teaching these materials. The course will be offered as a two-day workshop where teachers will learn several exercises that have been designed specifically for high school biology classes. Repeatable for credit under different topics. Departmental option for Pass/Fail grading.

BIO 499 Cr. 1-3
Independent Research
Individual research projects. Open to advanced students. Prerequisites: four semesters of biology and the completion of a consent form signed by the project director. Students may enroll for 1-3 credits per semester for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of three credits can be applied to the major in biology.