HISTORY (HST)

Professors: Buffton, Chavalas, Lee, Potts, Snyder (Chair), Zeisler-Vralsted;
Associate Professors: Hollenback, Sinclair;
Assistant Professors:
Vandenberg-Daves.

History Major
(Liberal Studies, Business, Science and Allied Health, Health Education, Physical Education, Recreation, and Middle/ Secondary Education) - 34 credits in the following categories: history of women-3 cr.; minority/global themes-3 cr.; U.S. history-9 cr. (only one of HST 241 or 242 may count in this category); regional/world culture zones - Asia-3 cr., Europe-3 cr., and Africa/Latin America- 3 cr.; classical world/religions-3 cr.; HST 490-4 cr. Twenty-one credits must be at 300/400 level. (Prospective majors should contact the history department for a list of courses which count in the above categories.)

History Minor
(Liberal Studies, Business, Science and Allied Health, Health Education, Physical Education, Recreation, and Middle/ Secondary Education) - 24 credits in the following categories: history of women- 3 cr.; minorities/global themes-3 cr.; U.S. history-6 cr. (only one of HST 241 or 242 may count in this category); regional/world culture zones - 6 cr. in two regions (Asia, Africa/Latin America, Europe); classical world/religions-3 cr. Twelve credits must be at 300/400 level. History minors in middle/secondary education are required to take HST 490. (Prospective minors should contact the history department for a list of courses which count in the above categories.)

Elementary/Middle Level Education
The elementary/middle level student may choose either a major or minor in history.

Social Studies Major
(Middle Level/Secondary Education). See description of the broadfield major on p. 74.

Other Requirements for students in education and physical education - GEO 200, EFN 200 and C-I 381 are statutory/ administrative code requirements for the history/social studies majors and minors in addition to the history requirements.

Public History Emphasis
(Open to students in all schools and colleges within the university) - 24 credits. The public history emphasis is an interdisciplinary undergraduate curriculum which prepares students to practice history outside of the academy, in non-teaching capacities, in the service of select public needs. Required courses: ENG 307 or 308, POL 211 or MGT 308, and HST 320, 390, 450. A focus must be selected from one of the following options. Archaeology focus: ARC 205, 310, 455. Public administration focus: POL 313, 314, 315. Environmental studies focus: ENV 201, HST 310, GEO 324.

This emphasis will satisfy the College of Liberal Studies minor option in the advanced course requirements for the BA and BS degree. See the College of Liberal Studies core on pp. 76-77.

Advanced Placement is available for Advanced Placement Examinations in American History or European History as developed and administered by the Educational Testing Services (ETS), Princeton, New Jersey. Information is available from the department chair.

Courses numbered HST 100-229 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores, those numbered HST 300-399 are open to sophomores, juniors, seniors, and to those freshmen who have appropriate General Education background.

+ above a course number indicates a General Education course.

+
HST 151 Cr. 3
World History To 1500
This course focuses on the diversity of the human community from earliest times to 1500 while recognizing that no civilization or nation developed in isolation or survived without coming to terms with its neighbors. Moreover, the course explores historical processes in the formation of the human community before 1500 without which modern humans cannot understand or explore contemporary issues.

+
HST 152 Cr. 3
Roots of the Modern World
This course examines current regional cultures by tracing the historical development which has produced these features of the modern world: emergence of the nation-state system; revolutions of ideology; the expansion of Western culture into the Pacific Rim; the opening of Africa to modern features of empire and independence; the interaction of non-Western economies with Western capitalism; world identification of issues of gender, race, and class. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered Sem. II.

+
HST 203 Cr. 3
Contemporary Global Issues
This course will offer a contemporary multi-disciplinary perspective regarding the major issues and trends confronting the global society as it enters the 21st century. Emphasis will be given to a critical review and assessment of the origin and present condition of the plethora of situations and problems affecting modern global society. The student will also learn to critically evaluate current and future events. The course will incorporate the views and approaches of the following disciplines: sociology/anthropology, economics, geography, political science and history. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with SOC/ANT/ECO/GEO/POL 202; may only earn credit in one department.) Offered Sem. II.

HST/ARC 204 Cr. 3
Ancient Literate Civilizations
An historical and archaeological study of ancient Eurasia and North Africa, including a survey of the major archaeological sites. Topics such as the development of urbanization in the Near East and Mediterranean, and comparative studies of the Indus civilization, China, Classical Greece, Rome, and the New World will be discussed. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

+
HST 205 Cr. 3
History of Ethical Values in World Religions
This course is a comparative historical survey of selected religions which focuses upon the distinctive ways that each religion developed norms of good and bad behavior that it imposed upon its adherents. What behaviors did each religious tradition label as good or bad, pure or impure? Why did each tradition place behaviors in those categories? How did those value judgments concerning good and bad behaviors change over the centuries? Some of the topics covered in this comparative historical fashion will include the treatment of women, attitudes toward abortion, contraception, sex outside of marriage, homosexuality, war, attitudes towards other religions, and environmental ethics. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered Sem. II.

+
HST 206 Cr. 3
Life in 20th Century America
This course focuses on the individual in a changing society. It will trace transformations in political and economic institutions, but will focus on the individual in a time of changing racial, gender, family, and cultural structures. It will explore the history of the self in American history. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered Sem. II.

HST 241 Cr. 3
United States History I
Survey of the development of the nation from the time of the expansion of Europe to the mid-nineteenth century. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 242 Cr. 3
United States History II
Survey of the development of the nation since the mid-nineteenth century. Prerequisite: HST 151. (May be taken before HST 241.)

HST/ARC 265 Cr. 3
Ancient Egypt
A survey of the archaeology and history of ancient Egypt which will emphasize Egyptian Civilization and its development. An emphasis will be placed on the adaptive aspects of Egyptian culture as well as the spectacular legacy of one of the world's greatest ancient civilizations. Taught by the SOC/ARC department. Prerequisite: HST 151. ARC 100 or HST 204 recommended. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

HST/ARC 275 Cr. 3
Ancient Britain and Ireland
Exploration of the fascinating archaeological heritage of the British Isles and Ireland from the earliest Stone Age inhabitants to the end of the Roman occupation. Taught by the SOC/ARC department. Prerequisites: HST 151 and ARC 100 or ANT 101. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

+
HST 299 Cr. 3
History of Ethnic America
The role and impact of immigrants and ethnic minorities on the political, economic and cultural development of the United States from colonial times to the present. Emphasis on the immigrant experience - the problems of immigrant adjustment, patterns of immigrant mobility and assimilation, and the persistence of ethnicity and ethnic tensions. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 300 Cr. 1-3
Topics in History
Topics selected by the individual instructor or by the students and instructor together. Special interests of both the bases of current world crises or areas of historical concern not covered in formal course work, may be the vehicles for this offering. Credits generated in this course apply as electives in the major or minor. Prerequisite: HST 151. Repeatable for credit.

HST 301 Cr. 3
A History of African Americans: The Civil Rights Movement in Historical Context
A study of the role and impact of African Americans on the history and development of the U.S. from colonial times to the present. Particular emphasis will be placed on the themes of racism and the struggle for human rights since World War II. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 302 Cr. 3
Native American History
A survey of Indian history in North America from European contact to the present, with primary emphasis upon the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A major theme to be explored will be Indian patterns of resistance to white-imposed policies. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST/SOC 308 Cr. 3
Social History
An exploration of the nature and history of society, focusing on the individual, family and community. From a global perspective, the purpose of the course is to seek an understanding of American society and the historical context of contemporary concerns about individual character, family life, and community relations. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with SOC; may only earn credit in HST or SOC.)

HST 310 Cr. 3
History of the Environmental Movement, 1850-Present
A study of the historical roots of the conservation movement and how the perceptions of humans toward their environment have evolved. Beginning with Thoreau's ideas about nature in the 1950s to present-day environmental concerns, articulated by groups such as the Sierra Club, the course will trace the development of an environmental conscience. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 311 Cr. 3
The West in American History
A survey of the American West as a significant world region. In addition to coverage of the frontier process, subjects such as racial prejudice, religious movements, land use, environmental and social change, and comparisons with other global themes and areas will be explored. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 312 Cr. 3
American Economic History
An examination of the changing economic structure in the United States and its effect upon major economic groups, politics and government. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 314/514 Cr. 2-3
Women, Sexuality and the Law in American Society
This course will trace the sources and evolution of the law and its philosophic assumptions from its archaic and ancient forms in Hamurabi's Code, Middle Assyrian Law and Hebraic Covenant Codes directly to the contemporary United States legal codes related to the regulation of sexuality and women's legal status. Prerequisite: HST 151 or graduate standing.

HST 319 Cr. 3
History of Women in the United States
A historical survey of the role and status of women in American history from colonial times to the present. All facets of this role will be explored in depth - political, economic, and social. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 320 Cr. 3
Public History
An introduction to public history (history outside academe and in the public interest) and a field experience. Class time will be devoted to the background, methods and application of history in the public arena. The class will also feature a team research project in historic preservation, cultural resource management, public policy, or museum administration. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 321 Cr. 3
Colonial America
A history of the founding and development of the North American colonies with special attention devoted to the successes and failures of the British imperial structure and to the development of republican institutions in the English colonies. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 322 Cr. 3
The American West in Film and Literature
The American West as portrayed by scholars, novelists and film makers over the past century. Students will read and analyze the historical interpretations of Turner, Webb, Nash, Limerick and White and examine selections from novels that treated the West in a popularized concept. Students will view, analyze, compare and contrast a series of commercial, popular films with this literature. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 323 Cr. 3
The First American Revolution
An examination of the efforts to mold a new nation, to maintain personal liberty and private property, and to promote political unity and economic expansion. prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 324 Cr. 3
The Civil War and Reconstruction
A study of the Middle Period (1826-1876) in U.S. History with emphasis on the Civil War and its military implications for later conflicts. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 328 Cr. 3
Twentieth Century United Statesand the World
Social, economic, political and diplomatic history of contemporary America from the 1890s to the present. Major topics include the development of the modern bureaucratic corporate state, the rise of U.S. power and its international effects, and the roles of women and American social and ethnic minorities in the 20th century. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 330 Cr. 3
History of Religions
This course will be a historical and broadly comparative study of religion, religions, and religious phenomena. First, it will incorporate a cross-cultural study of such phenomena as myth, ritual, sacred places, gods and goddesses, mysticism, and the various forms of religious community and authority. Second, it will also trace the historical development of the scholarly study of comparative religion. Finally, it will focus on the historical evolution of a particular religious phenomenon through many centuries, i.e., the historical evolution of the devil and the concept of hell in the Old Testament and Christianity. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered every three years.

HST/ARC 331 Cr. 3
The Ancient Greek World
An historical and archaeological survey of the ancient Greek world (Greece proper, the Aegean Islands, southern Italy, western Turkey). Periods discussed will include Cretan (Minoan), Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Early Greek Christian. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered every fourth semester. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

HST/ARC 332 Cr. 3
Ancient Rome and the Mediterranean
A historical and archaeological survey of the ancient Mediterranean area (with emphasis on the Italian peninsula) from the founding of the city of Rome to the collapse of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century A.C.E. Periods discussed will include: Italy in the Neolithic period, the founding of Rome, Etruscan Domination, the Roman Republic, the Roman Principate/Empire, and the advent of Roman Christianity. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.) Offered every fourth semester.

HST 336 Cr. 3
The Middle Ages, 300-1300
The emergence and flowering of medieval European civilization - in its political, religious, socio-economic and cultural aspects - from the Germanic invasions to the Renaissance era. This course will also examine the Byzantine and Islamic civilizations; their interaction with the West; and the contributions made by the Muslim and Byzantine peoples to medieval Europe. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered every sixth semester.

HST 338 Cr. 3
Wisconsin History
An exploration of the history of Wisconsin, focusing on place, people, and the development of regional culture. Special emphasis will be given to environment, native peoples, ethnicity, the Progressive transformation of state politics, and community from the territorial period to the recent past. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 343 Cr. 3
Renaissance and Reformation Europe
The broadening of European political, social, cultural, geographical and religious horizons from A.D. 1300 to 1648. This course will also examine European interaction with Asian, Islamic and American cultures, and the impact such interaction had upon Europe. Offered every sixth semester.

HST 344 Cr. 3
History of Modern Europe
The emergence of Europe as a political, cultural, social, industrial and military power during the 19th and 20th centuries. This course will also explore European interaction with non-Western cultures, the two world wars, the Cold War, decolonization, the decline of Europe as a premier world power, and the break-up of Eastern Europe and Soviet regimes. Offered every sixth semester.

HST 345 Cr. 3
Modern Germany:
From Unification to the Present Development of Germany through wars of unification and emergence as a world power, World War I and Weimar Republic, Nazi rule and World War II, and changes in the post-war Germanys. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 347 Cr. 3
History of Modern England
The History of England from 1760 to the present with emphasis on industrial and constitutional developments and the growth and decline of England as a major economic and military power. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 350 Cr. 3
Episodes in French History
An examination of various episodes in French history that illustrate major social, intellectual, political, and economic trends. Each semester will examine a specific aspect of French history since 1750. These will include: the French Revolutions of 1789, 1830, 1848, 1870, and 1968; war and occupation in France; and French intellectual development since 1750. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 351 Cr. 3
History of France: 1750-Present
A history of France since 1750 incorporating major social, intellectual, political, and economic trends. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 354 Cr. 3
History of Russia and the Soviet Union
The origins and development of the Russian state from Kievan Rus through the collapse of the Soviet Union. This course will also examine the global impact of Russian interaction with Asian, Islamic and Western cultures. Prerequisite: HST 151. Offered every sixth semester.

HST 356 Cr. 3
History of Women in the Western World to 1600
A historical survey of the roles and lives of women in the Western World from antiquity to the 16th century. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 357 Cr. 3
Structures of Western Patriarchy and Feminism
The course will explore the origins and development of the institutional and ideological structures of patriarchy in the western world from the pre-literate and archaic eras to the contemporary era. It will attempt to trace the origins of a feminist analysis and counterpoint and the development of that analytical perspective into the modern world. While the focus will be western, the course will draw on comparative cultural parallels and divergences globally. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 359 Cr. 3
History of Christianity
The origins and development of the Christian religion from its beginning to the present. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 360 Cr. 3
Women and Modernism from 1600 A.D.
Through a historical survey of women's lives in the Western world from Early Modern Era, the course will critique the theoretical and actual impact of 'modernism' on women and men. While the primary focus will be on Europe, theoretical works from the U.S. will be drawn for completing the understanding of the relevant debates. Modernism is the beginning of the Age of Reason and application of rationalism to the very structure of Western society. What was women's place in these theoretical debates and the execution of these ideas. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 361 Cr. 3
Mexican History
Survey of Indian and Hispanic roots of Mexican history on both sides of the border. Emphasis on events in Mexico which have affected the United States. Prerequisite HST 151.

HST 362 Cr. 3
Nineteenth Century Latin America
Study of the problems of political instability, economic underdevelopment and social disunity from the Wars of Independence (1810-1825) to World War I. Attention also to the non-Hispanic Caribbean region. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 363 Cr. 3
Twentieth Century Latin America
The struggle for economic development, political democracy, and social justice in the period of developing nationalism since World War I. The Non-Hispanic Caribbean is included. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 364 Cr. 3
History of Central America
Survey of the isthmus, including emphasis on the search for a transit route, and other efforts toward viability. Each country stressed as distinctive. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST/ARC 365 Cr. 3
Ancient Iraq
An historical and archaeological survey of ancient Iraq (Syro-Mesopotamia) from its prehistoric origins in the neolithic period to the Seleucid period. Ethnic groups discussed will include the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Kassites, Amorites, Chaldeans, and Elamites. Topics will include the rise of urbanism, cuneiform writing, religion, literature, displaced persons, gender relations, and social structure. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

HST/ARC 366 Cr. 3
Ancient Israel
A historical and archaeological survey of coastal Syria and Palestine from the neolithic period to the Roman conquest. Various ethnic groups discussed will include the Eblaites, Phoenicians, Philistines, Canaanites, Arameans, Israelites, Samaritans, and Judeans. Special emphasis will be placed on putting biblical history in its Palestinian context. Topics will include social structure, gender relations, religion, and literature. Prerequisite: HST 151. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.)

HST 367 Cr. 3
History of Buddhism
A survey of the historical development of the Buddhist religion - its doctrines, practices, and institutions - from its origins through the 20th century. This course will analyze how Buddhism first evolved in India and focus upon the distinctive ways that it developed in southeast Asia, Tibet, China, and Japan. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 368 Cr. 3
History of Hinduism
A survey of the historical development of the Hindu religion from its origins in the early Vedic period
through the 20th century. Some of the topics covered include the evolution of the belief of reincarnation, the development and significance of the caste system, the development of Hindu attitudes toward women, and the evolution of the principal Hindu gods and goddesses. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 369 Cr. 3
History of Islam
A survey of the historical development of Islam from its origins through the present day. It will also analyze the central beliefs, practices, and institutions of Muslims. Special attention will be given to the situations of women in the Islamic world. Prerequisites: HST 151.

HST/W-S 370 Cr. 3
The History of Black Women's Activism
An historical overview of the thoughts, actions, and creative products of Black women activists in the United States, from slavery to the present. Students will examine historical analyses, speeches, essays, economic activities, organizational styles, political issues, and various forms of artistic expression that women of African descent have produced in order to query, resist, and defy the interlocking oppressions of racism, sexism, and classism in the United States. Prerequisite: W-S 100 or 210 or 230. (Cross-listed with W-S; may only earn credit in HST or W-S.) Offered alternate years.

HST/W-S 371 Cr. 3
Women, Agriculture, and the Environment
Beginning with the ancient notion that the earth was both alive and female, a concept indigenous to western as well as other cultures, this course will examine subsequent ideas that have historically shaped attitudes and actions toward women and the earth, especially as those values and actions have affected agriculture in the U.S. The course will examine such topics as the roles of women as builders of community in the rural world; the impact of the industrializing of the production of food and fiber on concepts of femininity; the development of the modern corporate state and its impact on women and agriculture; and how women and men are working to re-shape the way we see, think about, and act on, and interact with the earth. Prerequisite: W-S 100 or 210 or 230. (Cross-listed with W-S; may only earn credit in HST or W-S.) Offered alternate years.

HST/ARC 372 Cr. 3
History of Women in the Ancient World
A history of the nature and status of women in the ancient world as derived from textual sources, including works of literature, private letters, economic documents, and tomb inscriptions. Areas studies will be Syro-Mesopotamia, Israel, Iran, Anatolia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean world. Also discussed will be the study of women as derived from archaeological sources. (Cross-listed with ARC; may only earn credit in HST or ARC.) Offered Sem. II.

HST 374 Cr. 3
Aspects of Chinese History
Each semester this course will examine a specific aspect of the history of China from earliest times to the present. Included will be the Chinese family; the role of ideology in Chinese history (Confucianism, communism, etc.); the revolutionary period (1800-1949); and China since 1949. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 375 Cr. 3
History of China
A survey of the history of China from earliest times to the present. Included are the study of traditional China, the impact of western civilization on that traditional society, and the rise of communism. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 376 Cr. 3
History of Japan
A survey of the history of traditional Japan, the impact of western civilization on that traditional society, and present problems and prospects. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 377 Cr. 3
History of the Vietnam War
The history of the Vietnamese civil war with focus on the involvement of the United States in it. It will examine Vietnam's anticolonial revolution, trace developing American foreign policy from Truman forward, and study its attendant consequences in both the United States and Vietnam. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 381 Cr. 3
History of Tropical Africa
An introduction to the social, economic, and political development of Africa from earliest times to the present. Special emphasis is given to pre-literate societies, expansion of Islam, European commerce and slave trading, the colonial period, and rise of nationalism in modern Africa. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 385 Cr. 3
Modern American Presidency
The evolution of the Office of the President of the United States within the context of world change; domestic, social and economic demands; and the distinct personalities that presidents have brought to their tasks. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 386 Cr. 3
Environmental History of North America
A study of the interactions between human beings and their physical surroundings on North America north of the Rio Grande. Themes include the role of culture in shaping the human response to the landscape and how industrialization changed 19th and 20th century society with its economic philosophy of capitalism. The course will cover Native American prehistory to the present. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 387 Cr. 3
History of Peace and War
An examination of the causes, consequences and nature of both war and peace in a global context. This course will consider war and peace throughout history and within various cultures. Prerequisite: HST 151.

HST 390 Cr. 3
Public History Research
An intensive research field school in historic preservation, cultural resource management, oral history, or museum studies. Students will complete one active research project in one of the above specialities. Both the specialty and the project will vary from semester to semester. Prerequisites: HST 151, 320. Offered once a year.

HST 400/500 Cr. 1-3
Historical Themes
Investigation of areas and topics of current historical interest not covered in the regular curriculum, ranging from local and regional to global issues. Credits generated in this course apply as electives in the major or minor. Prerequisite: HST 151. Repeatable for credit.

HST/M-S 402 Cr. 3
American Military History
An historical review and analysis of the development of military strategy and weapons, a detailed study of the history of the United States military, an analysis of contemporary, post World War II issues, and a study of selected battles. Prerequisite: consent of military science/history department chair. (Cross-listed with M-S; may only earn credit in M-S or HST.)

HST 450 Cr. 3-12
History Internship
The internship is intended to provide a student with an on-the-job experience which is related to academic studies in history. A student who applies for an internship and is accepted, will be placed in a carefully selected position and will be supervised by a committee of three members. At least two members of the committee shall be members of the history department. A maximum of 6 credits may be counted toward the history major and 3 credits toward the history minor from HST 450. Prerequisites: overall grade point average of 2.75 with a minimum GPA of 3.00 in history. An open evaluation session between the committee and intern will be held before a grade is assigned by the faculty members of the committee.

HST 490 Cr. 4
Seminar: Historiography
Themes and techniques of historical inquiry. Lectures, discussions, and reports on historiography with particular attention to research methods, use of library resources, interpretation, and composition. Completion of a supervised project which requires practical applications of historical methods. Prerequisites: 12 credits in history, excluding current registration.

HST 491 Cr. 12
Pathways in American Studies I
Coordinated study in disciplines related to the history of the United States. Students will be directed by the history department chair as they select academic mentors with whom they will pursue their studies in such fields as literature, political science, history, sociology/archaeology, economics and women's studies. Weekly tutorials under the direction of the history department chair will supplement regular attendance in lectures and seminars each semester. These academic experiences must be at the 200 course level or higher. Prerequisite: must be a student from University College of Swansea (U.K.) enrolled through International Education program.

HST 492 Cr. 12
Pathways in American Studies II
Coordinated study in disciplines related to the history of the United States. Students will be directed by the history department chair as they select academic mentors with whom they will pursue their studies in such fields as literature, political science, history, sociology/archaeology, economics and women's studies. Weekly tutorials under the direction of the history department chair will supplement regular attendance in lectures and seminars each semester. These academic experiences must be at the 200 course level or higher. Prerequisite: must be a student from University College of Swansea (U.K.) enrolled through International Education program.

HST 497 Cr. 1-3
Individual Study in History
Directed readings and research under the supervision of an assigned instructor. No more than six credits in HST 497 may count in the major and no more than three credits in HST 497 may count in the minor. Prerequisites: 20 credits in history (including current registration) and written permission of the instructor.