Professors: Winfrey (Chair);
Associate Professors: Rajagopal, Rott;
Assistant Professors:
Bratina, Schwan, Taylor;
Lecturers: Anglehart, Voyles.


The University of Wisconsin System and the Board of Regents have identified the Microbiology Program and UW-L as a Center of Excellence based on the exceptional quality of the undergraduate laboratory science education. The Microbiology Program has been nationally recognized for the overall quality of the program and prepares its graduates for a diversity of professional opportunities at the baccalaureate level. Since the inception of a major in 1984, more than 95 percent of the microbiology graduates interested in employment have obtained positions in hospitals, clinics, private laboratories, food and fermentation industries, pharmaceutical industries, universities, and government agencies.

Microbiology is also an excellent curricular track to prepare students for graduate or professional schools (medical, dental, veterinary, optometry). Microbiology provides exceptional training in a fundamental discipline in their post-graduate education, and also provides abundant employment opportunities for students who do not go on to graduate or professional school.

The Microbiology major is housed within the Department of Microbiology and provides students with an extensive curriculum with a strong laboratory emphasis. Microbiology faculty have obtained over one million dollars in grant funding within the past decade to ensure that students gain experience in the latest state-of-the-art techniques. Students may choose from an extensive list of microbiology electives and emphasize one of five curricular tracks: (1) medical microbiology, (2) research and developmental microbiology, (3) biotechnology and microbial genetics, (4) food and fermentation microbiology, or (5) environmental microbiology. All microbiology majors receive individual counseling throughout their undergraduate years and they may tailor their curriculum to meet their individual career goals. An active American Society for Microbiology recognized Microbiology Club enhances the educational experience. For additional information regarding the Microbiology Center of Excellence, contact the Microbiology Program Director, Cowley Hall, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601.

Microbiology Honors Program
See department chairman for requirements.

Microbiology Major
(Business, Liberal Studies, Science and Allied Health) - 38 credits, including BIO 101, 303 (or 312 and 313*), and MIC 230, 361, 371, 416, 425, 461 and nine credits of electives from the following: MIC 260, 350, 420, 426, 427, 428, 434, 450, 460, 479, 489, 499; BIO 406, 412, 413, 435, 436, 447, 448, 449, 463; MLS 400, 410, 415, 425. At least one elective must be an eukaryotic micro-biology course (BIO 406, 412, 413, or MLS 415). A maximum of two credits from MIC 450, 479, 489, or 499 may be applied to the major. One course in physics (PHY 125, PHY 103 and 104, or PHY 203 and 204) and a minimum of 22 credits of chemistry are required including: CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305) 301, 325 (or 417 and 418).

In order for microbiology majors to continue in upper division microbiology coursework they must:

1. complete BIO 101, 303 or 312, and MIC 230

2. complete three semesters of chemistry (CHM 103, 104, and 300 or 301, or 303)

3. have a minimum GPA of 2.5 in the six science courses listed above

4. complete one semester of math (MTH 150 or higher) with a grade of C or better

Microbiology students may then apply for continuance in the microbiology program (usually after the completion of three or four semesters). Application materials may be obtained from the microbiology adviser. Admission is competitive and not all students meeting the minimum requirements are guaranteed admission. Students not meeting the minimum requirements may petition for admission into the program, and may be accepted depending on space availability.

The microbiology department incorporates a significant amount of writing throughout the required core courses (MIC 230, 361, 371, 416, and 425) instead of identifying particular courses as writing emphasis courses. Students who complete the microbiology major will fulfill the university writing emphasis requirement through the microbiology writing-in-the-major program.

+ above a course number indicates a General Education course.

MIC 100 Cr. 4
Microbiology and Human Affairs
Microbiology plays an integral role in human affairs and our daily lives. Some microorganisms have caused tremendous suffering throughout history, however many microbes have also provided countless benefits to humans and play vital roles in essential global cycles. This course examines the science of microbiology and the impact of microbiology on human affairs. The principles of microbial diversity, cell structure, growth and reproduction, global processes, disease, and prevention of disease are covered. Each topic provides a basis for discussion of current issues where microorganisms play a role. The laboratory provides an inquiry based approach to examining the diversity of microorganisms and their role in disease, spoilage, genetic engineering, food and antibiotic production, agriculture, and the environment. Not applicable to a major in microbiology or biology. Lect. 3, Lab. 2.

MIC 230 Cr. 4
Fundamentals of Microbiology
An introduction to the fundamental principles and applications of microbiology with an emphasis on the role of microorganisms, especially bacteria, in human affairs. Lecture topics include microbial diversity, cell structure and function, growth and metabolism, genetics, genetic engineering, control of microbial growth, host-parasite interactions, immunology, microbial ecology and applied microbiology. Laboratory emphasis is on methods used to cultivate and identify bacteria, genetic techniques, and on standard techniques used in applications of microbiology (clinical, food, industrial, and aquatic). Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: BIO 101 and CHM 103.

MIC 260 Cr. 1-3
Topics in Microbiology
Varying topics in microbiology with a specific title assigned to each. Offered by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Prerequisite: MIC 230. Repeatable for credit-maximum 6.

MIC 299 Cr. 1-2
Introduction to Microbiology Research
An opportunity to participate in laboratory or field research experience under the direction of a faculty member. Depending on the nature of the research project, study will involve participation in laboratory or theoretical work in addition to selected readings and instruction. A written report to the supervising faculty member is an expected outcome. Admission by instructor consent and department approval. Repeatable for credit - maximum 4.

MIC 350 Cr. 3
Bacterial Diversity
A survey of the bacteria. Lectures will cover bacterial classification and the structure, physiology,
ecology, and applications of various groups of bacteria. Special emphasis will be on the more unique species and those of industrial, ecological and environmental importance. The laboratory will involve enrichment and isolation procedures for selective groups of bacteria. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: MIC 230.

MIC 361 Cr. 4
An introduction to how the immune system protects against infectious disease and how it can contribute to disease. A discussion of fundamental characteristics of innate and acquired immunity is followed by study of antigens, antibodies, the major histocompatibility complex, T and B lymphocyte recognition of antigen and response, cytokines and immune regulation, hypersensitivity reactions including allergies,and the immune system in AIDS. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: MIC 230; BIO 303 or 313 and CHM 300 or 303 recommended.

MIC 371 Cr. 4
Pathogenic Bacteriology
The study of pathogenic bacteria and their relationships to disease; principles of infection and pathogenesis, and unique properties of pathogens. Laboratory emphasis is on techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Not applicable to biology major; may be applied to the microbiology, medical laboratory science major and/or degree as well as an elective for the biology biomedical concentration. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisites: MIC 230, BIO 303 or BIO 313, MIC 361 (may be taken concurrently).

MIC 416/516 Cr. 4
Microbial Genetics
An in-depth study of the bacterial and bacteriophage genome with emphasis on the central dogma.
Specific topics include DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA mutation and repair, regulation of gene expression, mechanisms of genetic exchange, plasmid structure and function, transposition, gene mapping and recombinant DNA technology. Laboratory emphasis is on the techniques used in bacterial mutagenesis, genetic exchange, gene mapping, and gene cloning. Lect. 2, Lab. 6. Prerequisites: MIC 361, four semesters of college chemistry including organic, and admitted to microbiology major. Offered Sem. I.

MIC 420/520 Cr. 3
Introductory Virology
An introduction into the world of viruses. Special emphasis is placed on structure, replication cycles in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and specific viral families of medical importance. Prerequisites: MIC 230 and three semesters of college chemistry to include organic chemistry. Offered Sem. II.

MIC 425/525 Cr. 4
Bacterial Physiology
An in-depth study of bacterial structure and function, catabolic and anabolic pathways, regulation, and macromolecular synthesis. Laboratory emphasis is on current techniques used to examine bacterial structure and metabolism such as macromolecular separations and quantification, use of radioisotopic tracers and quantification of enzyme activity. Lect. 2, Lab. 6. Prerequisites: MIC 361, MTH 150 or higher, CHM 301 and CHM 300 (or 303), and admitted to microbiology major. Offered Sem. II.

MIC 426/526 Cr. 4
Food Microbiology
A study of environmental factors affecting the growth, activity, and destruction of micro-organisms in food; principles of food spoilage; preservation of foods, including basic methods and their application to foods; food-borne intoxications and infections; indicator organisms; sanitation and microbiological standards in foods. Laboratory instruction includes quality control methods, sampling methods, techniques to identify important microorganisms in foods, and data interpretation and analysis. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisites: MIC 230; BIO 412 strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I.

MIC 427/527 Cr. 3
Industrial and Fermentation Microbiology
A study of microbiology and biochemistry of food fermentations; bioconversions; production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids and organic acids. Starter culture systems will be examined. Prerequisite: MIC 230; MIC 426 stronglyrecommended. Offered Sem. II.

MIC 428/528 Cr. 2
Fermentation Microbiology Laboratory
Principles of fermentation science and biotechnology with emphasis on industrial and food fermentation processes. Laboratory emphasis is on the use of various fermentation systems that generate useful products including fermented food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals and other gene products. Lab. 4. Prerequisites: MIC 426 or 427 and three semesters of college chemistry. Offered. Sem. II.

MIC 434/534 Cr. 3
Aquatic Microbial Ecology
An ecological study of bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae of aquatic ecosystems. Topics include microbial
strategies for survival under various environmental conditions, the role of micro-organisms in biogeochemical cycling of elements, interactions of microorganisms with other aquatic biota, the role of microorganisms in pollution problems, and applications of microbial ecology to biotechnology. Laboratory emphasis is on experimental design and sampling techniques, quantification of microbial biomass, and measurement of microbial activities in aquatic habitats. One weekend field trip required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisites: MIC 230 and three semesters of college chemistry; BIO 341 strongly recommended. Offered Sem. I, alternate years.

MIC 450 Cr. 1-3
Internship in Microbiology
An academically relevant field experience in government, industry, business or community agencies. Students must have their internships approved and be advised by the department. Students must be on their internship worksite during the semester for which they are registered for academic credit. Maximum of two credits applicable to major. Repeatable for credit - maximum 8. Pass/Fail grading.

MIC 460/560 Cr. 1-3
Symposium in Microbiology
Varying topics in microbiology with a specific title assigned to each. Offered by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Prerequisite: MIC 230. Repeatable for credit-maximum 6.

MIC 461 Cr. 1
Capstone in Biology/Microbiology
A seminar-style course designed for students to review and discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences and to assess their major in biology or microbiology. This course will cover basic concepts of resume and cover letter writing, quantitative skills, computer literacy, and current topics in biology and microbiology. Students are expected to actively participate in an assessment of their major, and participate in discussions on major issues and developments in the biological sciences. Prerequisite: senior standing; recommended for seniors in their final semester. Pass/Fail grading.

MIC 479 Cr. 1-2
Microbiology Laboratory Assistant
An opportunity to assist in the preparation and instruction of a microbiology laboratory. Students will be expected to assist in preparation of course materials, demonstrate proper techniques, and evaluate student performance. Admission by instructor consent. Lab. 2-6. Repeatable for credit - maximum 4. Pass/Fail grading.

MIC 489 Cr. 1-2
Independent Study in Microbiology
A directed reading/project course covering a standard body of knowledge within the discipline but outside that offered through regularly scheduled courses. Under the direction of the supervising faculty member, study may involve a review of current literature. A written report or project is an expected outcome. Admission by instructor consent and department approval. Repeatable for credit - maximum 4.

MIC 499 Cr. 1-3
Independent Research in Microbiology
An opportunity to pursue individual research topics under the direction of a faculty member. Depending on the nature of the research project, study is expected to involve substantial laboratory or theoretical work in addition to literature review and instruction. Students are expected to develop research skills related to microbiology. In addition to a written report to the supervising faculty member, expected outcomes may include: laboratory notebooks, experimental devices, software, papers and presentations to departments and regional meetings. Admission by instructor consent and department approval. Repeatable for credit - maximum 8.