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UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

BIOLOGY (BIO)

College of Science and Health

Department Chair:  Mark Sandheinrich

3004 Cowley Hall; 608/785-8238

E-mail: msandheinrich@uwlax.edu


www.uwlax.edu/biology


Professors: Abhold, Brice, Cooper, Gerber, Gillis, Haro, Howard, Maher, Miskowski, Sandheinrich, Tyser, Volk, Associate Professors: Abler, Galbraith, Liu, Perez, Sandland, Seebach, Strauss, Thomsen, Assistant Professors: Baines, Gerrish, King-Heiden, Klein, B., Klein, J., Litster, Osmundson, Sanderfoot, Snively,  Lecturers: Baines, Ellis, Greany, Hoar, Kobs, Oldenburg, Paluch, Redman, Werren


Please Note: All Biology majors AND concentrations require a minimum of three 400-level BIO credits (excluding BIO 450, 479, 489, 491, 495, and 499) to fulfill requirements of the major.


Biology Major

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 39 credits: (58 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203, 306, 307, 315, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 302, 303*, 312*, 313*, 321, 330, 333, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 408, 410, 412, 413, 414, 419, 422, 424, 428, 429, 432, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 447, 448, 449, 456, 458, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 473, 476; MIC 230, 350, 380, 406, 420, 421, 427, 428, 434. A maximum of two non-lab courses may be applied toward the biology major elective requirements, excluding BIO 499. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may be used as electives. Three semesters (15 credits) of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305) and MTH 145 (four credits) are required.

*A maximum of eight credits of BIO 303, 312, 313 can be applied to the major.


Biology Major: Aquatic Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 39 credits: (67 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203, 306, 307, 315, 341, 491; MIC 230; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 405, 414, 419, 422, 441, 447, 448, 458, 463, 464, 473, 476; MIC 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. A minimum of 20 chemistry credits is required, including CHM 103, 104, 301, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305). A minimum of eight credits of mathematics including MTH 145 or 265 and 175 or 207 is required.


Biology Major: Biomedical Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 39 credits: (67 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203, 306, 307, 312, 313, 315, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 202, 333, 406, 408, 410, 413, 424, 428, 429, 432, 435, 436, 440, 443, 449, 463, 465, 466, 467, 468; MIC 230, 406, 407, 420, 421. Up to two elective credits from a combination of BIO 450, 479, 489, 495, 499 of which only BIO 499 can be taken for two credits. A minimum of 24 chemistry credits is required including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305), 301, and 325 (or 417 and 418). MTH 145 (four credits) is required.


Biology Major: Cellular and Molecular Biology Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 39 credits: (71 total credits including CHM and MTH requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203, 306, 307, 315, 435, 436 or 468, 440, 491. Remaining credits from the following electives: BIO 202, 303*, 312*, 313*, 333, 337, 406, 408, 410, 412, 424, 428, 429, 432, 436, 443, 449, 463, 466 and 468; MIC 230, 406, 420, 421, and 427. Up to two credits from BIO 450, 479, 489, 495, and 499 may count toward the major. A minimum of 24 chemistry credits is required including: CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305), 301, 325 (or 417 and 418). A minimum of eight credits of mathematics is also required, including MTH 145 or 265 and 175 or 207.

*A maximum of eight credits of BIO 303, 312, 313 can be applied to the major.


Biology Major: Environmental Science Concentration

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 39 credits: (67 total credits including CHM, MTH, and GEO requirements) BIO 103 or 105, 203, 306, 307, 315, 419, 491; remaining credits from: BIO 302, 321, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 412, 414, 422, 429, 441, 442, 447, 448, 456, 458, 463, 464, 473, 476; MIC 230, 350, 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. Three semesters (15 credits) of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304 and 305) and eight credits of mathematics are required, including MTH 145 or 265 and 175 or 207. A minimum of five credits of environmental science support courses is also required which includes CHM 301, or two courses selected from GEO/ESC 345, 385, 485, or two courses selected from CS 120, 220, MTH 405, 445, 446, 447, 448.

 

Biology Education Major (Early Adolescence-Adolescence Certification)

(Teacher Certification programs) 40 credits: (62 total credits including CHM and MTH) BIO 103 or 105 (preferred), 203, 306, 307, 315, 429, 469, 491; MIC 230; remaining electives from: BIO 202, 302, 303*, 312*, 313*, 321, 330, 333, 337, 341, 404, 405, 406, 408, 412, 413, 414, 419, 422, 424, 428, 429, 432, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 447, 448, 449, 456, 458, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 473, 490, 495; MIC 230, 350, 380, 406, 420, 427, 428, 434. Up to two credits of BIO 499 may count toward the major. A maximum of two non-lab courses may be applied toward the biology major elective requirement, excluding BIO 490 and 499. BIO 312 and 313 are strongly recommended.

Note: Each student must have a minimum of three 400-level BIO credits (excluding BIO 450, 479, 489, 491, 495, and 499) to fulfill requirements of the major.

In addition, three semesters of chemistry, including CHM 103, 104, 300 (or 303, 304, and 305) and MTH 145 are required (19 credits).

Note: CHM 103 prerequisite includes MTH 150 or placement into MTH 151 or higher.

Teacher certification candidates must also complete GEO 200 (3 credits) to fulfill statutory licensing requirements. Additional teacher certification requirements can be found here.

*A maximum of eight credits of BIO 303, 312, 313 can be applied to the major.


General Science Education (Broad Field) Major (Early Adolescence-Adolescence Certification)

(Teacher Certification programs) 66-70 credits

Note: Second Major Only (First major must be Biology Education, Chemistry Education, or Physics Education)

1. STEP Teacher Education candidates are required to complete a 36-40 credit major in Biology Education, Chemistry Education, or Physics Education
2. 14 credits in one science area outside of the science major selected from Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, or Physics
3.  Eight credits in each of the two remaining science areas selected from Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, or Physics
4. One mathematics course beyond minimum General Education Math requirement

Note: The completion of one certifiable minor is highly recommended instead of the completion of the 14-credit requirement.

Additional teacher certification requirements can be found here.


Biology Minor

(All colleges, excluding Teacher Certification programs) 24 credits: BIO 103 or 105, 203 and electives* in biology or microbiology, including at least one course numbered 302 or above. (BIO 102, 106, and MIC 100, 130, 407, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives.) A maximum of two non-lab courses can be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement, excluding BIO 499.

*A maximum of eight credits of BIO 303, 312, 313 can be applied to the minor.


Biology Education Minor

(Teacher Certification programs) 24 credits: BIO 103 or 105 (preferred), 203, 306, 307; MIC 230 or BIO 315. A maximum of two non-lab courses may be applied toward the biology minor elective requirement. (BIO 102, 106, 469, 499; MIC 100, 130, 407, 416, 425 are not applicable as electives).

Teacher certification candidates must also complete GEO 200 (3 credits); in addition, Early Adolescence-Adolescence candidates must complete BIO 469 (4 credits) unless a major in Chemistry Education or Physics Education is completed. Both courses fulfill statutory licensing requirements.


Dual Degree Program in Biology and Physical Therapy

This is a special dual degree program which enables a student to receive both a Bachelor of Science degree (Biology Major) and a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree from UW-La Crosse. Students typically complete the undergraduate requirements in three years followed by 34 months of attendance in the Physical Therapy graduate program. The undergraduate requirements include completion of the General Education program, college core requirements (with the exception of a minor), physical therapy pre-requisite course work, and all of the requirements for the Biology Major except six credits of biology elective courses.

UW-La Crosse students will be selected for entrance into the Graduate Program in Physical Therapy through a competitive application process. Participation in the undergraduate Biology/PT dual degree program does not guarantee admission to the Graduate Program in Physical Therapy.


Pigeon Lake Field Station in Northern Wisconsin

The University of Wisconsin System sponsors summer programs at the Discovery Center, Pigeon Lake Field Station near Drummond, Wis. Appropriate course work successfully completed at Pigeon Lake is credited as resident study by the university.

Run by UW-River Falls, Pigeon Lake Field Station is a natural laboratory in the heart of the Chequamegon National Forest. Sixteen rustic cabins (each accommodating eight students), a dining hall, recreation hall, and three classroom/laboratory buildings are situated near the lake's 1,400-foot shoreline. Excellent facilities are available for boating, swimming, and fishing.

The station is used principally for programs in field biology, the natural sciences, outdoor recreation, outdoor education, and art. Courses vary in length from one to three weeks. Graduate and undergraduate courses are publicized in the early spring. For further details, contact the biology department or visit www.uwrf.edu/PigeonLakeFieldStation.

The biology department incorporates a significant amount of writing through the required courses instead of identifying particular courses as writing emphasis courses. Students who complete the biology major, including any of the concentrations, will fulfill the university writing emphasis requirement.



BIOLOGY (BIO)


+ next to a course number indicate a GENERAL EDUCATION course


+BIO  102  Cr.3

Contemporary Issues in Biological Sciences

An intra-disciplinary approach to investigating current issues within the biological sciences. Specific topics under the general categories of health, medicine, environment, genetics, and industrial technology will be identified, described and characterized. The science underlying the issue will be explored and the potential impact (past and future) of applied scientific advances within the respective disciplines will be examined in depth. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology.   Offered Occasionally.


+BIO  103  Cr.4

Introductory Biology

A survey of modern biology. Subjects discussed include ecology, cell biology and genetics. Themes developed through the course are the use of the scientific method and the relationships between society, technology and science. This course is designed as a general education course for non-science or non-allied health majors. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Students cannot earn credit in both BIO 103 and BIO 105.   Offered Fall, Spring.


+BIO  105  Cr.4

General Biology

An introduction to biology including topics in ecology, population biology, nutrient cycling, food webs, cell structure and function, metabolism, photosynthesis, reproduction, genetics, molecular biology and evolution. This course provides a strong foundation for further science courses, and is designed for science majors, allied health majors and students with an interest in science. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Students cannot earn credit in both BIO 103 and 105.   Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  106  Cr.3

Nature Study

A study of the common plants and animals of the area. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology.   Offered Occasionally.


+BIO/PSY  107  Cr.3

Brain Basics: Linking Society and Neuroscience

Students will be introduced to the field of neuroscience, including an examination of the cells that make the brain operate, how they operate together to form structures and systems, and how the operation of these systems relates to human behavior. The range of behaviors to be examined will include everyday learning and memory, sleeping and dreaming, as well as an exploration of the brain when abnormal behaviors occur. We will also investigate the impact that advances in the neurosciences have had on society in general. (Cross-listed with BIO/PSY; may only earn credit in one department.) Not applicable to biology major or minor.   Offered Occasionally.


BIO  202  Cr.2

Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Interpretation

This course is an introduction to the common techniques used by biologists to efficiently and effectively process, interpret, and communicate ideas and information generated in the biological sciences. Students will learn the techniques in a hands-on approach using biological databases. Topics covered in this course will include basic laboratory and field notebook production and use; the use, analysis and interpretation of databases, graphs, tables, charts, and other visual aids used in scientific papers; techniques for digital microscopic image production and analysis. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105.  Offered Summer, Winter.


BIO  203  Cr.4

Organismal Biology

A survey of the diverse form and function of prokaryotes, protistans, fungi, plants and animals. Basic ecology, natural history, evolution, biogeography and importance of organisms to humans will be emphasized. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105 with a grade of C or better. If both BIO 204 and BIO 210 have been completed, BIO 203 cannot be taken for credit.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  204  Cr.3

Plant Biology

An investigation of the general morphology and life patterns of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria - with emphasis on plants - and inquiry into their economic importance, ecology, evolution, growth and development. The importance of photosynthetic organisms will be a general theme throughout the course. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105 with a grade of C or better.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  210  Cr.3

Animal Biology

A phylogenetic survey of the animal kingdom beginning with single-celled organisms and ending with vertebrates. Innovation of form and function of each major taxonomic group will be discussed along with their ecology, natural history, distribution and relationship to humans. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105 with a grade of C or better.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  260  Cr.1 - 3

Special Topics in Biology

Topics in biology of interest to selected groups. Topics will be offered with a specific title. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate.  Repeatable for credit - maximum 6. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO  302  Cr.2

Introductory Plant Identification

Introduction to the identification of trees, shrubs, and other herbacious plants of both local native and cultivated species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204.  Offered Fall - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO  303  Cr.4

Vertebrate Form and Function

Anatomy and physiology of the vertebrates with the rat as the basic study animal. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO  306  Cr.4

Genetics

A comprehensive study of the basic principles of heredity, including Mendelian and Molecular Genetics. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105 and a second biology course applicable to the major.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  307  Cr.3

Ecology

A study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of living organisms.  The basic principles of ecology are presented in order to develop an understanding of the nature of these interactions at the individual, population and community levels of biological organization.   Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204 and BIO 210.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  312  Cr.4

Human Anatomy and Physiology I

A comprehensive study of general anatomical and physiological principles of cells, body fluid compartments, the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems and the special senses. Required elements of the laboratory portion of the course include computer simulations, microscopy, mammal organ dissections and study of cadaver prosections. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in BIO 103/BIO 105 & CHM 103. Students who have completed this course, or are currently enrolled, may not register for this course again until after freshmen registration (unless they have instructor/department consent).  Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO  313  Cr.4

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

A comprehensive study of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive and endocrine systems. Required elements of the laboratory portion of this course include computer simulations, microscopy, mammal organ dissections and study of cadaver prosections. Lect. 3, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 312. Students who have completed this course, or who are currently enrolled, may not register for this course again until after freshmen registration (unless they have instructor/department consent).  Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO  315  Cr.4

Cell Biology

A comprehensive overview of cell structure and function, including the nature of biomolecules, cellular metabolism and its regulation, the dynamics of membranes and the cytoskeleton, the execution and control of the cell cycle, cell interactions, and cell signaling. Lect. 3, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105; one additional semester of biology; and a minimum of three semesters of chemistry through organic chemistry.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  321  Cr.3

Ornithology

Field identification and ecology of birds with emphasis on Wisconsin forms. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 303.  Offered Spring.


BIO  330  Cr.3

Economic Botany

Plants provide humans with food, feed, fuel, fiber, pharmaceuticals, and other economically important products. This course provides an introduction to domesticated plant varieties and wild plant species and their value in human and domestic animal nutrition, and as energy sources, manufactured materials and drugs. Ethnobotanical interests in wild plant species will also be discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204.  Offered Alternate Years.


BIO  333  Cr.3

Radiation Biology

Applications and effects of nuclear radiation on biological systems. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105; one additional course in biology; CHM 103.  Offered Spring.


BIO  337  Cr.3

Plant Physiology

An introduction to plant water relations, mineral nutrition, respiration, photosynthesis, growth, and development with emphasis on the physiology of seed plants. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO  341  Cr.3

Limnology

This course includes fundamentals of aquatic ecology, with special reference to community ecology. Taxonomy, stratification and succession of organisms to be investigated. Energy traffic through aquatic ecosystems will also be investigated. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab. 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105; one additional biology course; one semester of chemistry.  Offered Fall.


BIO  390  Cr.2

Latin and Greek Roots in Scientific Terminology

Most scientific terminology comes to us as derived from Latin and Greek words. This course provides a solid background in scientific vocabulary by learning root words, prefixes and suffixes, as well as combinations of two or more root words and prefixes. Does not apply toward biology major or any concentration. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105.  Offered Fall.


BIO 404/504  Cr.3

Plant Taxonomy

Collection, identification, classification, and evolution of the vascular plants with emphasis on local flora. Lect. 1, Lab. 4. Slash course BIO 404/504. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204; Junior standing.  Offered Spring - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO 405/505  Cr.2

Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants

Identification and collection of vascular plants of aquatic and marsh habitats with emphasis on adaptive morphology and ecology of local species. Field trips required. Lect. 1, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204; Junior standing.  Offered Fall - Even Numbered Years.


BIO 406/506  Cr.4

Parasitology

A survey of the major groups of animal parasites with regard to their taxonomy, morphology, life histories, host-parasite relationships, and economic importance. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 303; Junior Standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 408/508  Cr.4

Developmental Biology

An exploration of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie embryonic development in several model organisms. Topics include fertilization, regulation of gene expression, cell fate determination, stem cells, early pattern formation, morphogenesis of tissues/organs, and limb formation. The course primarily focuses on animal models with an emphasis on evolutionarily conserved processes, structures, and molecular pathways. Technological advances and relevance to human development and disease are highlighted throughout. Lect. 2, Lab. 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 303; BIO 306 or MIC 416; BIO 315; Junior standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO  410  Cr.1

Human Cadaver Dissection

This supervised cadaver dissection course uses a regional anatomy approach and is designed to improve students' competency in human gross anatomy. Students will prepare a human cadaver prosection for use in undergraduate anatomy and physiology laboratories. In addition to dissections, students will use computer-based learning projects and literature reviews to enhance their understanding of human anatomy and the historical and current role of cadavers in society. Prerequisite: BIO 312, BIO 313 and BIO 479.  Offered Summer.


BIO 412/512  Cr.4

Mycology

A survey of all the major groups of fungi of the fungal kingdom (and relatives) in terms of systematics, anatomy, morphology, ecology, physiology, genetics, evolutionary relationships, and human and plant pathology. Laboratory includes microscopic and macroscopic study of the fungi, as well as making a collection of cultures and of fungal reproductive structures (including mushrooms) from selected groups. Lect. 2, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204 or MIC 230 (Both the microbiology course and one of the biology courses are strongly recommended); Junior Standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 413/513  Cr.3

Medical Mycology

A study of the increasing number of medically important fungi, including the yeasts, molds, other fungi, and actinomycetes that are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 412 or MIC 230; Junior Standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO 414/514  Cr.3

Freshwater Invertebrate Zoology

Introduces the ecology and taxonomy of the metazoan, non–parasitic freshwater invertebrates. An extensive course designed to provide a foundation for taxonomic knowledge, and basic understanding of the biology and ecology of freshwater invertebrates for advanced students in aquatic and environmental sciences. Lectures will focus on ecology; labs on taxonomy and quantitative skills. A student reference collection and field trips will be required. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 341; Junior standing.  Offered Fall - Even Numbered Years.


BIO 419/519  Cr.3

Quantitative Methods in Ecology

An introduction to field and laboratory procedures used by ecologists to describe and analyze the interactions between organisms and their environments. The course will emphasize quantitative techniques, including the use of computer technology, for collecting, recording and interpreting ecological data. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 422/522  Cr.3

Ichthyology

A study of the taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of fish, with emphasis on the fresh water fishes. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 303; Junior standing.  Offered Fall - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO 424/524  Cr.3

Endocrinology

A comprehensive study of the production, regulation, structure, molecular to whole body actions, metabolism, and excretion of biochemical signaling molecules. The classical and more recently recognized neurotransmitter and hormone pathways and clinical considerations of each will be explored using lecture, laboratory exercises, and case studies. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or BIO 312 and BIO 313; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 428/528  Cr.3

Advanced Nutrition for the Health Professions

A comprehensive study of nutrition-related diseases and nutrition assessment, evaluation, and management in clinical settings that people working in healthcare may encounter. Prerequisite: BIO 313 or NUT 200; Junior standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO 429/529  Cr.3

Evolution

Consideration of the principles and the record of organic evolution of plants and animals. Prerequisite: BIO 306; Junior standing.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO 432/532  Cr.2

Biology of Cancer

A survey of the current knowledge of cancer biology. The course will include lectures, readings and discussions on a wide range of cancer topics, including: characteristics of cancer cells, carcinogenesis, cancer genes, tumor classification, invasion, metastasis, impact of cancer on body functions, epidemiology, inheritance, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Prerequisite: BIO 303 or BIO 313; BIO 306 or MIC 416; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 435/535  Cr.3

Molecular Biology

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. The course will focus on the molecular aspects controlling biological processes. The impact of recombinant DNA technology on biotechnology and medicine will also be examined. BIO 436 is an optional laboratory which can be taken concurrently. Prerequisite: BIO 306 and 315, or MIC 416, and three semesters of college chemistry including organic chemistry. Biochemistry strongly recommended; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 436/536  Cr.1

Molecular Biology Laboratory

A study of molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Laboratory emphasis is on recombinant DNA technology, current techniques used to express recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells, computer based DNA analysis, macromolecular modeling using computers, and quantitative assay techniques. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 435. Lab 3. Prerequisite: BIO 435 must be taken concurrently; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 437/537  Cr.3

Plant Growth and Development

Discussion of experiments and analysis of research data obtained from the living plant. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204; Junior standing.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO 439/539  Cr.3

Plant Anatomy

A detailed examination of plant structure and development as revealed with the light and electron microscopes. Primarily seed plants will be examined. Structure and development will be studied as a means by which plants cope with their ecology, evolution and function. Lect. 2, Lab. 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204; Junior standing.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO/MIC 440/540  Cr.2

Bioinformatics

In this course, students will use computers to study and compare the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or the amino acids in a protein. Computers are also used to examine the three dimensional structure of protein. Being able to manipulate and study this information is the basis for the current revolution in Biotechnology. Topics include evolution, taxonomy, genomics and understanding disease. This course provides students an opportunity to explore the relationships between biology, microbiology, chemistry and computer science. Lect. 1, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 306 or MIC 416; Junior standing. (Cross-listed with BIO/MIC, may only earn credit in one department.)  Offered Spring, Winter.


BIO 441/541  Cr.3

Environmental Toxicology

The study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants on ecosystems and humans. Topics covered include environmental legislation, chemical distribution and fate in the environment, methods of toxicity testing, assessment of exposure and risk, effects of chemical contaminants on humans, and fish and wildlife populations, communities and ecosystems, and toxicity of specific chemical groups. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341; CHM 104; Junior standing.  Offered Spring - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO/MIC 442/542  Cr.3

Plant Microbe Interactions

This course will explore in depth various ways that plants interact with microbes in the environment, at the macroscopic, cellular, and molecular levels. Case studies will include both parasitic and mutualistic (symbiotic) interactions. Microbes include fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. Includes plant pathology and studies of the beneficial relationships between plants and microbes. Inquiry based labs are integrated into the lecture and discussion sessions. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or 204; MIC 230; BIO 306 or MIC 416; Junior standing. (Cross-listed with BIO/MIC, may only earn credit in one department.)  Offered Spring - Even Numbered Years.


BIO 443/543  Cr.3

Molecular Mechanism of Disease and Drug Action

A survey of the leading non-infectious and non-cancerous diseases in the industrialized world. This course will explore the molecular mechanisms of disease, clinical symptomology, and pharmacological treatment. Students will be expected to conduct thorough research on a given disease and present their results in a poster session. Prerequisite: BIO 306, BIO 313; CHM 300 or CHM 304; Junior standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO 447/547  Cr.3

Standard Methods\Quality Assurance Water Analyses

This course will instruct students on the use of standard methods for analyses of selected biological, chemical, and physical constituents commonly included in water quality analyses. Quality assurance procedures, including Good Laboratory Practice Standards (GLPS) will be integrated into all activities. Materials covered include: principles of methods used; evaluation of precision, bias, and contamination; proper reporting and interpretation of results; and environmental sources and significance of constituents analyzed. Lect. 1, Lab 4. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 204 or BIO 210 or BIO 303; three semesters of college chemistry; Junior standing. BIO 341 recommended.  Offered Spring - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO 448/548  Cr.4

Aquatic Toxicology

A study of the lethal and sublethal effects of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems, specific chemical effects, chemical distribution and fate, and environmental legislation. Procedures for toxicity evaluation, experimental design and statistical analysis will be emphasized in the laboratory. Lect. 3, Lab 2. Prerequisite: Four semesters of college biology; three semesters of college chemistry; Junior standing. BIO 341 recommended.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO 449/549  Cr.3

Advanced Microscopy and Biological Imaging

Principles and techniques used in modern microscopy and biological image analysis. Emphasis will be on student projects to become proficient at confocal, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Students will also learn specimen preparation, digital imaging, and image processing and analysis for biological applications. Lect. 2, Lab 2. Prerequisite: BIO 315 or MIC 230; Junior standing; or by consent of the instructor.  Offered Fall - Even Numbered Years.


BIO  450  Cr.1 - 3

Internship in Biology

An academically relevant field experience in government, industry, business, or community agencies. Students must have their internships approved and be advised by the department. Students must be on their internship worksite during the semester for which they are registered for academic credit. Credits earned will count only toward university electives and not toward the completion of any major or minor unless listed. Repeatable for credit - maximum 8.  Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO 456/556  Cr.4

Plant Ecology

Conservation biology, ecological restoration, and predicting the effects of climate change all require an understanding of plant ecology. This course is focused on the interactions among plants, other organisms, and the environment. We will work across the individual, population, and community levels, and emphasize an exploratory approach to plant ecology. Class activities will include lectures, the discussion of ecological journal articles, and carrying out student-designed experiments. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341; junior standing.  Offered Fall - Even Numbered Years.


BIO 458/558  Cr.3

Comparative Animal Physiology

This course provides a thorough understanding of animal physiology from a comparative perspective. Emphasis will be placed on the basic physiological principles by which animals perform their life sustaining functions. Discussion will focus on vertebrates, but will span both invertebrate and vertebrate models to illustrate how largely divergent groups have evolved different (or similar) mechanisms to cope with their specific environmental challenges. Class activities will include lectures and discussion of physiological journal articles. Prerequisite: BIO 203 or BIO 210; junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 460/560  Cr.1 - 3

Symposium in Biology

Studies in biology of interest to specific groups. Varying topics will be offered at intervals with a specific title assigned to each. May be staffed by resident faculty or visiting lecturers. Other departments may be invited to participate. Repeatable for credit - maximum 6. Variable offerings - check registration schedules. Prerequisite: Four semesters of biology; Junior standing.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO 463/563  Cr.3

Aquatic Animal Health

The study of pathogens of aquatic animals, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, amphibians, waterfowl and mammals. Sections on nutrition and toxicology are included. Emphasis is on laboratory techniques for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites. Field trips required. Lect. 2, Lab 3. Prerequisite: BIO 103 or BIO 105; BIO 203 or BIO 210 or BIO 303; CHM 103; Junior standing. MIC 230 strongly recommended.  Offered Occasionally.


BIO 464/564  Cr.3

Stream and Watershed Ecology

An introduction to key concepts and theory pertinent to understanding and managing fluvial ecosystems (rivers and streams) and their watersheds. The course emphasizes rivers as large-scale physical and biological systems. Course work includes a comparative case study of distinctive types of temperate, tropical, and polar rivers. Prerequisite: BIO 307 or BIO 341; Junior standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO 465/565  Cr.3

Neurophysiology

An examination of the nervous system beginning at the cellular level and working up to neuronal systems. Topics covered include the ionic basis of membrane potentials, synaptic communication, organization of functional circuits of neurons, and systems within the brain and/or spinal cord which control learning and memory, vision and motor function. Exploration of these fundamental neurophysiology topics from the basis for understanding a variety of student-selected topics which will be covered later in the semester. Late-semester topics often include higher-order aspects of brain function or challenges to the nervous system, such as the repair of brain or spinal cord injury, degenerative disease states, dyslexia, or gender differences. BIO 467 is an optional laboratory course which can be taken concurrently.   Prerequisite: BIO 312; Junior standing.  Offered Spring.


BIO 466/566  Cr.3

Human Molecular Genetics

A study of the basic principles of heredity in humans. Focus will be on modern molecular techniques used in isolating human disease genes and modes of inheritance of human traits and disorders. Ethical issues in human genetics will also be discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 306; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO 467/567  Cr.2

Neurobiology Laboratory Techniques

An introduction to common laboratory techniques in neurobiology, including electrophysiology with invertebrate preparations, mammalian neuronal cell culture, and computational modeling. Students will receive training in techniques while performing classical experiments, then design their own novel experiments and carry them out. Prerequisite: BIO 312; BIO 465 or concurrent enrollment; Junior standing.  Offered Spring - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO 468/568  Cr.1

Human Molecular Genetics Lab

A study of the techniques used in doing research in human molecular genetics with a focus on commonly used model organisms in the study of human genetic disorders. Laboratory emphasis is on phenotype analysis, library screening, DNA microarray analysis, gene mapping, and bioinformatics. This lab is optional for those enrolled in BIO 466/566. Lab 3. Prerequisite: BIO 306; BIO 466 concurrently; Junior standing.  Offered Fall.


BIO/CHM/PHY  469  Cr.4

Teaching and Learning Science in the Secondary School

This course will be integrated with a field experience. In the context of a real classroom, teacher candidates will learn how to plan for and assess student learning in science.  With a focus on content knowledge, teacher candidates will plan a variety of meaningful learning experiences, assess student learning, and monitor and modify instruction to best support the individual learners in the classroom. The teacher candidate will design, enact, and assess activities that advance student understanding to more complex levels. Teacher candidates will gain experience in monitoring the obstacles and barriers that some students or groups of students face in school and learn how to design learning experiences to support all learners. Prerequisite: GEO 200; EDS 351.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO 473/573  Cr.3

Marine Biology

Marine biology is an interdisciplinary field that includes elements of geology, physics, chemistry and biology.  Students will gain an introduction to how biological organisms deal with varying physical, geological and chemical conditions found in marine ecosystems. Emphasis will be placed on current conservation concerns and marine invertebrate diversity. Prerequisite: BIO 203; CHM 103; junior standing.  Offered Spring - Odd Numbered Years.


BIO 476/576  Cr.3

Ecosystem Ecology

Ecosystems include the living and non-living components of an environmental system and have emergent properties that can only be understood by examining the system as a whole.  This course will examine advanced ecological topics centered around the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.  Topics covered will include the development of the ecosystem concept, ecosystem succession, production/decomposition, energy transfer in food webs, and nutrient cycling.  The course will consist of classroom lectures, problem sets, and reading/discussion of relevant literature. Prerequisite: BIO 307; one semester of chemistry; junior standing.  Offered Spring - Even Numbered Years.


BIO  479  Cr.1

Biology Teaching Assistant

An opportunity to assist in the preparation and/or instruction of a biology course. Working with a faculty members, students may be expected to assist in the development and preparation of course materials, course instruction and student assessment. Repeatable for credit - maximum 2.  Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO  489  Cr.1

Independent Study in Biology

A directed reading project or job shadowing experience within the discipline but outside that offered through regularly scheduled courses. Under the direction of the supervising faculty member (and in coordination with mentoring professional for job shadowing experience). A written report is an expected outcome. Repeatable for credit - maximum 2.   Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO 490/590  Cr.1 - 3

Current Topics in Biology Education

Biological researchers produce new discoveries almost daily. The purpose of this course is to train K-12 pre-service and in-service teachers in the current technologies and theories used in biology and to demonstrate the current approaches to teaching these materials. Repeatable for credit under different topics. Not applicable to a major or minor in biology, except for teacher certification major. Prerequisite: junior standing. Pass/Fail grading. Offered Fall.


BIO  491  Cr.1

Capstone Seminar in Biology

A seminar-style course designed for students to review and discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences and to assess their major in biology. This course will cover basic concepts of resume and cover letter writing, quantitative skills, computer literacy and current topics in biology. Students are expected to actively participate in an assessment of their major, and participate in discussions on major issues and developments in the biological sciences. Students will present a seminar on a contemporary biological topic incorporating primary literature. Prerequisite: senior standing.  Offered Fall, Spring.


BIO  495  Cr.1 - 3

Service Learning in Biology

Students will plan, implement, and reflect on community service projects that will allow them to apply, enhance, and share what they have learned in a specific area of focus (such as aquatic science, nutrition, etc.) in cooperation with one or more community partners. The student's university advisor(s) and the participating community partner(s) will provide constructive evaluation of the project and student reflections throughout the experience. The student will provide formal written and oral communications to the advising faculty and community partner(s) regarding the outcomes of the service project. Repeatable for credit - maximum 3. Prerequisite: junior standing.  Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.


BIO  499  Cr.1 - 6

Independent Research

Individual research projects. Open to advanced students. Students may enroll for 1-3 credits per semester for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of two credits can be applied to the major in biology. Prerequisite: Four semesters of biology and the completion of a consent form signed by the project director.  Offered Fall, Spring, Summer.