1.     

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle. M

 

2.        The history of the present (ruler) is . . . a history of repeated injuries and usurpations.  J

 

3.        The ideas of religious liberty and freedom of conscience merely gave expression to the sway of free competition within the domain of knowledge.  M

 

4.        Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it.  J

 

5.        The ruling ideas of each age have never been the ideas of its ruling class.  M

 

6.        Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes.  J

 

7.        A ruler whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be a ruler of a free people.  J 

 

8.        Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into a great hostile camps.  M

 

9.        We mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.  J

 

10.     In this sense the theory . . . may be summed up in the single sentence:  abolition of private property.  M 

 

11.     When a long train of abuses . . . evinces a design to reduce (the people) under absolute despotism, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.  J 

 

12.     . . . openly declare that (our) ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing conditions.  M 

 

13.     . . . governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.  J