The above image show a dorsal view of the anterior part of a leopard frog
skeleton. The skeleton of the frog consists chiefly of bony and cartilaginous
elements. The functions of a skeleton include providing support for the body,
protection of delicate internal organs and attachment surfaces for muscles. In
vertebrates, the axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, sternum
(breast bone) and ribs (which are not present in amphibians).
The vertebral column of frogs is made up of 10 vertebrae, the first of which is
called the atlas (7), which articulates with the base of the skull. The atlas is
the only cervical vertebra in the frog. The next seven vertebrae are abdominal
vertebrae, followed by the sacral vertebra whose strong transverse
processes form the sacrum (8) that join with the ileum (9). The last vertebra is
a long and highly modified bone called the urostyle (10).
Note: Most vertebrates have a tail supported by caudal vertebrate, but
frogs and toads are atypical in that they lack any tail and are therefore called
anurans ("tail less amphibians").
fact that that the
forelimbs of the frog consist of two stout bones - a proximal humerus (1) and a
distal radioulna (2). The hand is composed of a number of carpals (3), metacarpals (4)
and distal elements called phalanges (5).
The forelimbs are supported by a number of bones that make up the pectoral
girdle. These bones include the suprascapulas (6) and the scapulas, clavicles,
sternum, which are best seen in the ventral view of the frog on the next page.