MIC 230 Fundamentals of Microbiology -001UW-La Crosse


Instructor: Bonnie Jo Bratina, 3029 Cowley Hall





I.      Advantages/disadvantages to studying bacterial genetics


II.    Recent historical milestones of genetics/microbial genetics

A.      one gene, one enzyme

B.      DNA is genetic material

C.      Structure of DNA

D.      Central Dogma

E.      PCR and site-directed mutagenesis


III.  Concepts/Definitions


IV. DNA/RNA structure


V.   Differences in eukaryotic/prokaryotic central dogma


VI. DNA replication


VII.        Transcription


VIII.      Translation


IX. Regulation




Mutation and Use of Bacterial Mutants


I.            Bacterial Variation

      A.      Mutations

      B.      Gene exchange 

II.            Mutation

A.            Definitions

B.             Types of Mutations

1.    Point mutations

a.            Substitutions

b.            Insertions

c.            Deletions

2.    Large insertions and deletions

3.    Reversions

C.             Effects of Mutations

D.            Causes of Mutations

1.            Spontaneous

2.            Induced

    a.            Chemical

    b.            Radiation

    c.            Biological

            E.            Repair

                        1.            Editing/Proofreading

                        2.            Photoreactivation

                        3.            Mismatch repair

                        4.            SOS repair

III.            Use of mutants


Gene Exchange - Conjugation

I.     Definition

II.    Most gene exchange involves recombination

A.      Homologous (general) recombination

B.      Site-specific recombination

III.   3 types of gene exchange

A.      Conjugation

B.      Transduction

C.      Transformation

IV.  Conjugation

A.      Definition

B.      Plasmids

1.  definition

2.  ori site

3.  genes carried

4.  copy number

5.  3 types w/regard to conjugation

      a.  conjugative

      b.  non-conjugative

      c.  mobilizable

6.  host range

C.      Discovery

D.      Process

E.      Differences in gram positive cells


I. Discovery

II. General properties of viruses

III. Structure/chemical composition

                        2.  Helical symmetry

                        3.  Amorphous (pleomorphic)

                        4.  Complex

                        4.  Genetic composition

IV. Viral classification

V. Viral replication – bacteriophage

VI. Importance

VII. Viroids and prions



Transduction and Transformation

I.            Transduction

                        2. Specialized

D. Applications

II.            Transformation

A.            Discovery

B.      Processes for carrying out transformation

C.      Artificial transformation

1.  Chemical

                        2.  Electroporation

D.      Applications


Control of Microorganism

I.  Control purpose

II.  Definitions

III. Death curve – decimal reduction time

IV. Factors affecting Death or inhibition

A. Time of exposure

B. Type of agent

D. Concentration (dose)

E. Initial number of organisms – target theory

F. Target organism

G. Environment

H. Synergism

V.           Mode of action

A.   Structures

B.   Processes

VI.   Physical control methods

A.  Temperature

1.     Cardinal temperatures

            2.    4 categories of organisms with respect to temperature optimum

            3.    Use of temperature to control microbes

                        a.   Heat

                                    i.   cooking

                                    ii.  pasteurization

                                    iii. canning

                                    iv. autoclaving

b.   Cold

i.   refrigerator

ii.  freezer

iii. ultracold

B.   Water availability

1.   dehydration

            2.  solutes to remove water

C.  Pressure

D.  Radiation

E.  Filtration

VII.  Chemical control methods

A.  Oxygen

B.   pH

C.   Disinfectants

D.   Food additives

E.   Antibiotics


Pathogenic Bacteriology

I.    History

II.   Definitions

III.  Virulence

            A. Infectivity

            B. Severity

IV.  Steps of Pathogenesis

A. Portal of entry

B. Colonization

C. Impaired host function due to toxins expressed or host response to colonization

V.   Virulence Factors

            A.  Attachment

            B.  Acquisition of nutrients from host

            C.  Inhibition of phagocytosis

            D.  Evasion of immune response

            E.  Inflict damage on host either indirectly or directly

                        1.  Indirect damage done by host’s own immune system

                        2.  Direct damage done by enzymes or toxins

                        3.  Two types of toxins

                                    a.  Exotoxins

                                    b. Endotoxins

VI.  Disease example:  Bubonic plague

A. Causative agent

B. Disease process – pathogen and host response

C. Treatment option



Immunology – Immune Response of Host

I.    Susceptibility

II.   Non-specific defenses

A. Skin

B. Hair follicles and sweat glands

C. Mucous membranes

D. Cilia

E. Flushing mechanisms

F. pH

G. Enzymes/chemicals

H. Normal flora

I. Phagocytic defenses

III.  Systems/organs that make up the immune system

            A. Blood and lymph system

                        1.  Red blood cells (RBC)

                        2.  White blood cells (WBC)

                                    a.  Myeloid line

                                    b.  Lymphoid line

                        3.  Fluid of blood

                                    a.  Plasma

                                    b.  Serum

                        4.  Lymph

            B. Spleen, thymus and bone marrow

IV.  Inflammation

V.   Specific defenses

            A.  Five main characteristics

                        1.  Not innate - acquired

                        2.  Very specific

                        3.  Diversity

                        4.  Memory

                        5.  Tolerance

            B.  2 branches - Humoral and Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

            C.  Overview of the response

            D.  Humoral

                        1. Antigens  

                        2. Antibodies

                                    a.  Structure

                                    b.  Classes

                        3.  Clonal Selection Theory

                        4.  Two stage Response

                                    a.  Primary response

                                    b. Secondary response

E.  Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

            1.  Purpose

            2.  Cells involved in the process

F.  Immunity

1.  Active vs. passive

2.  Natural vs. artificial