The Oneota people gathered in large groups of over 100 people in semi-permanent villages around large rivers and lakes. Archaeologists have found stains from the posts of the houses that give some idea of the size and shape of Oneota structures. It appears that Oneota people built houses in different sizes and shapes around the state. Some houses were small, being used for a single family, while others were large enough for several families. Some villages were small, only a few houses, while others covered acres and had many houses. Some villages had palisades while others didn't.
One thing that archaeologists do find at all villages are storage pits. These pits were used to store corn and other crops, and later some of these storage pits were reused as garbage pits. Archaeologists find bundled grasses that were used for a variety of purposes such as for the walls of houses or the lining of storage pits.