1200 to 1650 A.D.
The Oneota were Wisconsin's first farmers. They lived in large villages on the broad sandy terraces along major rivers and lakes, grew crops of corn, beans, squash, tobacco, and other crops, and harvested wild foods from the rivers and lakes as well as from the woodlands. Oneota groups were also found in many adjoining states in the Midwest, including Iowa, Minnesota, and Illinois. The people traded with each other, exchanging raw materials such as stone for flintknapping, or copper for making tools and ornaments. However, they weren't as involved in extensive long-distance trade as were the Mississippians. They usually buried their dead in cemeteries or within the village, rather than constructing burial mounds. Their villages contain many storage pits that were later refilled with village refuse, including pottery, stone tools and flakes, animal and plant remains. Archaeologists have learned a lot about the Oneota from the refuse found in these pits.