Many of the tools that archaeologists find at Oneota sites are the same as those found at Woodland and Mississippian sites. The small triangular points used with bow and arrows are found at Oneota sites, along with scrapers, drills and bone awls. Grinding stones were still used, but now mainly for corn instead of nuts. Catlinite was used to make pipes and ornaments. Some artifacts, however, are unique to Oneota sites such as fish lures, disk pipes and bison or elk scapula hoes.
Oneota pottery was different than that found at Woodland or Mississippian sites. Oneota pottery was tempered with clam shell and had the pumpkin shape similar to Mississippian pottery. The pots are also much larger than Woodland pots and suggest larger groups of people were cooking and eating together. The designs that the Oneota people put on their pots were, however, unique to the Oneota. Some of these designs were used in rock carvings and paintings. Archaeologists also find remains of bone rasps, whistles, shell spoons and turtle shell bowls.