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Gregory Sandland

University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

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Gregory Sandland



Specialty area(s)

Host-parasite interactions, life-history evolution, disease ecology, invasive species dynamics, mathematical biology, toxicology

Current courses at UWL

Bio 203 (Organismal Biology)

Bio 406/506 (Parasitology)

Bio 460/560 (Marine Symbioses)

Bio 491 (Senior Capstone)

Bio 499 (Mathematical Biology)

Bio 701 (Communications in Biology)


Ph.D. - Purdue University

M.Sc. - University of Lethbridge (Canada)

B.Sc. - University of Victoria (Canada)




Professional history

2016    Professor, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse

2011    Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse

2007    Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse

2005    Post-Doctoral Fellow, Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN, U.S.A.)

2005    Ph.D. in Biology, Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN, U.S.A.)

1999    Research Associate, University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada)

1999    M.Sc. in Biology, University of Lethbridge (Lethbridge, AB, Canada)

1996    B.Sc. (with distinction) in Biology, University of Victoria (Victoria, BC, Canada)

Research and publishing

Galbraith, A., Sandland, G.J. and N. Carmosini.  2021. Evaluating the life-history responses of adult invasive (Bithynia tentaculata) and native (Physa gyrina) snails exposed to a Cu-based pesticide (EarthTec® QZ). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 107:833-837.

Sandland, G.J. and J.P. Peirce.  2021. Patterns of Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus infection in sympatric and allopatric hosts (Bithynia tentaculata) originating from widely separated sites across the USA.  Parasitology Research, 120:187-195.

Peirce, J.P.,  Pellett, J.J., and G.J. Sandland.  2020.  A mathematical model for the control of
swimmer's itch.  Natural Resource Modeling, 33:e12275

Bachtel, R., Rittenhouse, M., Sandland, G.J., and J. A.H.  Koop.  2019. Infection patterns of trematodes across size classes of an invasive snail species using field and laboratory studies. Parasitology, 146:438-444.

Carmosini, N., Gillis, R., Ismail, A., and G.J. Sandland.  2018. Evaluating the toxicity of EarthTec® QZ to invasive (Bithynia tentaculata) and native (Physa gyrina) freshwater snail species from the Upper Mississippi River. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 101:428-433.

Bennie, B., Eager, E., Peirce, J.P., and G.J. Sandland.  2018.  Using a summer REU to help develop the next generation of mathematical ecologists.  Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 80:926-944.

McCloskey, M., Scheil, J., Sandland, G.J., and G.A. Gerrish.  2017.  Luminescent syllid (Odontosyllis sp.) courtship display densities vary across marine habitats around South Water Caye, Belize. Gulf and Caribbean Research, 28:40-45.

Weeks, A.M., De Jager, N.R., Haro, R.J. and G.J. Sandland.  2017.  Spatial and temporal relationships between the invasive snail Bithynia tentaculata and submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River.  River Research and Applications, 33:729-739.

Sandland, G.J. and K. Josephson. 2017.  Nutrient availability modulates both host and parasite life histories in a snail-trematode interaction. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 126:135-142.

Peirce, J.P., Sandland, G.J., Bennie, B., and R.J. Haro.  2016. Modeling and analysis of a temperature-dependent outbreak of waterfowl disease in the Upper Mississippi River.  Ecological Modelling 320:71-78.

Harried, B., Fischer, K., Perez, K.E., and G.J. Sandland. 2015. Assessing infection patterns in Chinese mystery snails from Wisconsin, USA using field and laboratory approaches. Aquatic Invasions, 10:169-175

Glodosky, C. and G.J. Sandland. 2014. Assessing host competency between native and invasive snail species exposed to the native parasite Echinostoma revolutum. Aquatic Invasions, 9: 87-93.

Sandland, G.J., Gillis, R., Haro, R.J., and J.P. Peirce. 2014. Infection patterns in invasive and native hosts exposed to a parasite associated with waterfowl mortality in the Upper Mississippi River, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50: 125-129.

Sandland, G.J., Houk, S., Walker, B., Haro, R.J. and R. Gillis. 2013. Differential patterns of infection and life-history expression in native and invasive hosts exposed to a trematode parasite. Hydrobiologia, 701: 89-98.

Yang, Y., Feng, Z.L., Xu, D., Sandland, G.J. and D.J. Minchella. 2012. Evolution of host resistance to parasite infection in the snail-schistosome-human system. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 65: 201-236.

Xu, D., Sandland, G.J., Minchella, D.J. and Z.L. Feng. 2012. Interactions among virulence, coinfection and drug resistance in a complex life-cycle parasite. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 304: 197-210.

Wood, A.R., Haro, C., Haro, R.J. and G.J. Sandland. 2011. Effects of desiccation on two life stages of an invasive snail and its native cohabitant. Hydrobiologia, 675: 167-174.

Sandland, G.J., Wethington, A.R., Foster, A.V., and D.J. Minchella. 2009. Effects of host outcrossing on the interaction between an aquatic snail and its locally adapted parasite. Parasitology Research, 105:555–561.

Zavodna, M., Sandland, G.J., and D.J. Minchella. 2008. Effects of intermediate host genetic background on parasite transmission dynamics: a case study using Schistosoma mansoni. Experimental Parasitology, 120:57-71.

Sandland G.J., Rodgers, J.R., and D.J. Minchella. 2007. Interspecific antagonism and virulence in hosts exposed to multiple parasite species. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 96:43-47.

Sandland, G.J., Foster, A.V., Zavodna, M. and D.J. Minchella. 2007. Interplay between host genetic variation and parasite transmission in the Biomphalaria glabrata-Schistosoma mansoni system. Parasitology Research, 101:1083-1089.

Zhang, P., Sandland, G.J., Xu, D., Feng, Z. and D.J. Minchella. 2007. Evolutionary
implications for interactions between multiple strains of host and parasite. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 248:225-240.

Sandland G.J., Detwiler, J.T. and D.J. Minchella. 2006. Understanding ecological
principles through parasitological pedagogy. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. 28.

Sandland G.J. and N. Carmosini. 2006. Combined effects of an herbicide (atrazine) and predation on the life history of a pond snail, Physa gyrina. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25:2216-2220.

Rodgers, J.K., Sandland, G.J., Joyce, S.R. and D.J. Minchella. 2005. Multi-species
interactions among a commensal (Chaetegaster limnaei limnaei), a parasite
(Schistosoma mansoni) and an aquatic snail host (Biomphalaria glabrata).
Journal of Parasitology, 91:709-712.

Sandland G.J. and D.J. Minchella. 2004a. Context-dependent life-history variation in a pond snail (Lymnaea elodes) exposed to desiccation and a sterilizing parasite. Ecoscience, 11:181-186.

Sandland G.J. and D.J. Minchella. 2004b. Life-history plasticity in hosts exposed to
differing resources and parasitism. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82:1672-1677.

Sandland, G.J. and D.J. Minchella. 2003a. Costs of immune defense: an enigma
wrapped in an environmental cloak? Trends in Parasitology, 19:571-574.

Sandland, G.J. and D.J. Minchella. 2003b. Effects of diet and Echinostoma revolutum
infection on energy allocation patterns in juvenile Lymnaea elodes snails. Oecologia, 134:479-486.

Prepas, E., Pinel-Alloul, B., Chambers, P., Murphy, T., Reedyk, S., Sandland, G.,
and M. Serediak. 2001. Lime treatment and its effects on the chemistry and biota
of hardwater eutrophic lakes. Freshwater Biology, 46:1049-1060.

Prepas, E., Babin, J., Murphy, T., Chambers, P., Sandland, G.J., Ghadouani, A. and M.
Serediak. 2001. Long-term effects of successive Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 treatments
on the water quality of two eutrophic hardwater lakes. Freshwater Biology,

Sandland, G.J., Goater, C.P. and A.J. Danylchuk. 2001. Population dynamics of
Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus metacercariae in fathead minnows
(Pimephales promelas) from four northern-Alberta lakes. Journal of Parasitology,

Sandland, G.J. and C.P. Goater. 2001. Parasite-induced variation in host morphology: brain-encysting trematodes in fathead minnows. Journal of Parasitology, 87:267-272.

Sandland, G.J. and C.P. Goater. 2000. Development and intensity dependence of
Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus metacercariae in fathead minnows
(Pimephales promelas). Journal of Parasitology, 86:1056-1060.



Barbara Bennie, Gunderson Health System; Roger Haro, Northern Arizona University; Eric Eager, Sumer Sports; Aaron Cupp, Jay Diffendorfer, Richard Erickson, Kathi Jo Jankowski, Danelle Larson and Molly Van Appledorn, all USGS; Gregory Sandland, Biology; and Douglas Baumann, Wako Bungula and James Peirce, all Mathematics & Statistics; co-authored the article "Bridging the gap between mathematical biology and undergraduate education using applicable natural resource modeling" in Letters in Biomathematics and was accepted for publication by IBA.

Submitted on: Nov. 19, 2023


Richard Erickson and Hannah Thompson, both USGS; Gregory Sandland and David Schumann, both Biology; and James Peirce, Mathematics & Statistics; co-authored the article "Using a coupled integral projection model to investigate interspecific competition during an invasion: An application to silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)" in Letters in Biomathematics and was accepted for publication by IBA.

Submitted on: Nov. 19, 2023


Gregory Sandland, Biology and James Peirce, Mathematics & Statistics, co-authored the article "Using Integral Projection Models to Explore Management Strategies for Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)" in Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics and was accepted for publication by Intercollegiate Biomathematics Alliance. Research collaboration with two, non-UWL undergraduate co-authors and Dr. Richard Erickson (US Geological Survey).

Submitted on: April 12, 2023


Richard Erickson, US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center; Gregory Sandland, Biology; and Barbara Bennie and James Peirce, both Mathematics & Statistics; co-authored the article "An integral projection model for gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) utilizing density-dependent age-0 survival" in Ecological Modeling published on Thursday, Dec. 29 by Elsevier. A collaboration between Mathematics, Statistics, Biology, and the USGS.

Submitted on: Dec. 29, 2022


Gregory Sandland, Biology and James Peirce, Mathematics & Statistics, presented "An integral projection model for Gizzard Shad: Utilizing density-dependent age-0 survival" at International Symposium in Biomathematics, Ecology, Education, and Research (BEER-XIV) on Nov. 13 online.

Submitted on: Nov. 17, 2021